diabetic macular edema
I. V. Vorobieva, D. A. Merkushenkova, L. G. Estrin
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of blindness among people of working age suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2 in developed countries. Diabetic macular edema (DME) may occur at any stage of DR and is the main cause of visual impairment in diabetic patients.
Clinical signs of DME are blurred vision, subjects deformation, visual impairment of different degree, relative or absolute scotomas appearance. According to research data, fixation impairment is present at diabetes mellitus type 2 patients.
Perimetry is a standard procedure during ophthalmic examination and is of great value as it not only reflects photosensitivity of each eye according to the retina surface but also shows the level of visual impairment along the visual pathway. In DME patients perimetry helps to localize absolute and relative scotomas, match the edema topography with the retinal sensitivity impairment.
Microperimetry is the current practice which helps to not only examine visual fields, but also to find out the retinal light sensitivity threshold and evaluate the fixation state. Recent fundus-microperimeter MAIA (Macular integrity assessment, CenterVue Spa, Italy) with laser scanning ophthalmoscope and advanced data base EyedB is a nonmydriatic device which allows to get macular zone images at 36º angle, to evaluate retinal sensitivity threshold and fixation stability in a profound or screening way.
The main clinical advantages of MAIA are the following: it is a nonmydriatic device, the screening test takes less than 3 minutes, it is possible to dynamically compare the research results, there are no research limitations.
The device expands ophthalmologists’ opportunities in functional changes diagnosis in patients with diabetic macular edema. Fundus-microperimeter MAIA showed high informational content and sensitivity over 90%.