A.S. Sigov, M.A. Karpov, V.I. Nefedov, N.A. Trefilov, S.E. Zheleznova, O.U. Mamaeva
Among the diagnostic tools used in modern experimental physics to the study of fast processes (BPP), high-speed electro-optical picture stands high speed (theoretical limit of temporal resolution of 10-14), a large amount of spatial information simultaneously recorded (up to 106 ... 108 resolvable elements) , the maximum sensitivity (recorded every electron emitted by the photocathode), wide spectral band registration (soft X-rays to near infrared radiation), the ability to quickly enter the registered images into a computer for their subsequent storage, processing, visualization and analysis.
The core of high-speed electro-optical camera is a pulsed electron-optical converter (EOC), in which the space-time coding and selection phase of the process. Such converters for high-speed image management electron beams include high-speed electromagnetic scanning system and electronic gates.
At the present time in Russia and abroad have been intensively studied the possibility of using microwave (MW) gas discharges in various fields of science and technology. Possible applications of the streamer discharge forms are defined by their specific properties: the absorption efficiency of microwave radiation in such a discharge is close to 100%. Discharge develops in the form of spatial structure consisting of alternating sequences of interrelated elements of the streamer, when the electrodynamic resonance they explode. But for the effective use of bits in applications requires quantitative studies of processes of their formation. This requires equipment that has the characteristics that allow capture processes with a temporal resolution in the microsecond and nanosecond ranges.
To register development luminous structure of the microwave streamer discharge in the spectral range 400 ... 800 nm was used miniature programmable electro-optical camera, which provides independent duration of each frame and each interframe breaks ranging from 10 ns to 1 ms in steps of 10 ns and the gain is not less than 104.
The methodology of measurement was as follows. In the area of focus was placed the type of initiator, installs a given level of pressure in the vacuum chamber and the experiment was chosen level of the field is equal to the critical value Ecr at a given pressure. Front and rear front of the microwave pulse has the time scale of about 2 microseconds.
Development of the discharge starts from the pole of the initiating vibrator. Discharge propagates in the focusing antenna from the body surface on which it occurs. Results of the study the initial stage of streamer microwave discharge with electron-optical camera K011 possible to identify the main stages in the formation of the initial streamer channel and reveal the dependence of time constants of the main stages of the external parameters of the experiment.
Creating a reliable physical and engineering models of the sequence of the leader-return stroke of lightning and the process of destruction of its facilities, in which it falls, is complicated by the lack of factual information about the optical picture of weakly streamer patterns of lightning. An alternative to traditional means of recording images of lightning are the electro-optical camera-based image intensifiers . These cameras have yielded new results in studying the processes of streamer length of the spark that enabled us to formulate several hypotheses related to the lightning leader process [5-7]. Studies using complex electro-optical apparatus GIN 6MV adapted to work with lightning and long sparks, carried out during the registration length of high-voltage spark to open the stand.
The studies were performed more than 1000 images of digits.