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I. N. Antonov, A. G. Lavkin
In this paper, the possibilities of microstrip-lines autogenerators are investigated for giving microwave layouts that implement physical principles of the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a microstrip-line with the local magnetic fields that affect the properties of the medium.
The Gann diode autogenerator was made on the asymmetric microstrip line with ferrite-filled as an insulator. The introduction of local heterogeneity in the path of autogenerator leads to its dynamic instability, the conditions for the emergence of the additional resonator. Frequency ratio of the main and additional resonators, the nature and value of the coupling between resonators determines the autogenerator mode – a monochromatic, multi-frequency, discrete or noise one. Regular local heterogeneity in the path of the autogenerator is created by a cylindrical magnet with a conical tip of the magnetic material. With increasing external magnetic field from 0.01 T to 0.15 T, the frequency of the generator is increased from 12.0 GHz to 13.5 GHz. The system is critical to the placement of the magnet; its position is chosen experimentally to establish a particular mode. In this paper, we also made the theoretical analysis of such a dynamic system.
To investigate the influence of an external uniform magnetic field on the autogenerator operation, it was placed in the gap between the electromagnet poles so that a homogeneous magnetic field was tangential to the ferrite substrate surface. In the absence of external field the autogenerator in the stochastic regime had an output power of 100 – 150 mW, bandwidth of the noise spectrum 200 – 300 MHz in the frequency range of 12 – 14 GHz, depending on the choice of working point of the diode 6.2 – 7.4 V. An introduction of the external magnetic field 0.001 – 0.010 T leads to the hopping frequency and the instability of the noise generation regime. This is due to the process of establishing the electrodynamic system interaction with an external field, and we can observe the alternation of the discrete and the noise spectrum. Further increase of the external field provides the stable generation of noise with the adjusting of the noise central frequency within 12.41 – 13.94 GHz with a power 30 – 60 mW. Increasing the magnetic field up to 0.16 T leads to the generation mode disruption, due to a significant change of the autogenerator resonance system under the field influence.
We also studied the system of two-coupled autogenerators. Two generating sections are located on ferrite substrates, each of which contains the diode in the microstrip resonator. Input 50-ohm lines of these sections are interconnected by a coaxial-to-microstrip adapter through the fluoroplastic gaskets. This provides isolation between the sections on the DC. For more isolation of microwave autogenerators, the output lines converge at an angle of about 60 °. Synchronization of diodes that provides an optimal operation of two-autogenerator section with the following parameters: output power device 70 – 120 mW, the frequency of 9,5-8,7 GHz, was carried out by changing the effective dimensions of the topology of microwave microstrip-line autogenerator system. Reduce of the supply voltage on the second diode leads to a change of the spectrum of microwave oscillations in the first diode from monochromatic to discrete, multi-point discrete and further to the noise spectrum.
Processes occurring in the system of two coupled autogenerators were studied on the basis of doubly-connected dynamic system model with two active elements. When there is coupling between the autogenerators, a simple quasi-periodic motion is destroyed, and (depending on the type and value of coupling) we have either periodic or stochastic mode in the system. The simplest single-mode oscillations are set in a multi-mode system as a result of the "race" effect, which is associated with the appearance of some or all of the nonlinear absorption modes that is progressing with the increase of "foreign" modes energies. The synchronization effect leads to discharge and ordering of the oscillation spectrum. In this case, the modes do not cancel each other and mutually shift the fre-quency so that, tacking into account nonlinear corrections, they are either the same or become comparable. However, the sufficiently strong coupling between autogenerators may have the opposite effect – chaos. This situation arises when considering two coupled autogenerators – stochastic oscillations may occur at a very strong coupling in the system.
Thus, in this paper, the autogenerators on microstrip transmission lines that implement physical principles of impact of the local magnetic fields on prop-agation of electromagnetic waves were investigated. The possibility of generation with the magneto-regulated spectra of mono-chromatic, multi-frequency and noise types was established.