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Creation and stabilization of substance nano state by previous chemical reaction

Keywords:

V.I. Vigdorovich, L.E. Tsygankova, S.V. Mischenko, N.V. Shel, A.Yu. Osetrov


A classification of the nanodimensional effects taking into consideration them as the steric occurrences or energetic ones or them together has been suggested. The conception about nano state of a substance, first of all, nano disperse materials representing the intermediate state between the separate atoms (molecules) and the condenced phase has been worked out. Nano state of substance is instable because of a high reactive ability of the substance existing, first of all, as the reactive clusters. Nano state induces the nanodimensional effects (NDE) of the substance which with regard to the chemical reaction lead to the abrupt or lengthy (according to dimension of particles) change of the process activation energy and the rate con-stants up to an appearance of the without activation processes or to a change of a sign of free Gibbs energy change (∆G) with an appearance of new thermodynamic allowed processes. The typical instance of such processes is the phase regrouping of intermetallic compounds. It is possible a sharp increase of substance adsorptive ability. For creation and further maintance of substance nano state with its high reactive ability in time it is necessary to appear a previous “starting” chemical reaction or physical influence, generating, particularly, considerable inner tensions or considerable temperature growth. The previous chemical reaction in liquid phase is magnesium oxidation in the Mg2Cu, MgCu2 intermetallic compounds Mg + 2H+ → Mg2+ + H2 with further phase transition Mg2Cu → MgCu2 → Cu, or indium oxidation in In2Bi 2In + 6H+ → 2In3+ + 3H2 with the phase transition In2Bi → InBi2, or aluminium in NiAl3 2Al + 6NaOH + 6H+ → 2Na2[Al(OH)6] + 3H2 with the phase regrouping NiAl3 → NiAl → Ni. Other instance of the previous reaction proceeding in gas phase is gallium oxidation in NiGa3 NiGa3(solid) + GaI3(vapor) → 3GaIvapor + Ni with the phase regrouping NiGa3 → NiGa → Ni. The plan of a control by the creation and maintenance of substance nano state is suggested. Tambov State Technical University Tambov State University named after G.R. Derzhavin
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