the electrochemical generator
probability of refusal
V.D. Vinokurov, S.D. Vinokurov, I.K. Shuklin
Modern wars have local character with application of the high-precision weapon. The big role in such conflicts is taken away aircraft. With reduction of threat of general or large-scale nuclear war the tendency of expansion of the list of the problems solved by strategic bombers in usual war was outlined. The given tendency is realised through programs of modernisation of complexes standing on arms and should be considered at a substantiation of requirements to perspective aviation complexes of strategic aircraft.
Modern aviation complexes of arms represent set of systems and the devices intended for the decision of fighting, prospecting, transport and other problems into which structure enter an air vessel with a set of onboard systems, aviation means of defeat. For preparation of such complexes for a start means of land maintenance of flights of a general purpose with high ekspluatatsionno-technical characteristics are required. Perfection of fighting air courts promotes development of means of land maintenance of flights, raises requirements to quality of energy given out by them. Accordingly, sources of electric energy also should meet these requirements.
Now as sources of electric energy on mobile means of power supply in aircraft wide application was found by generators constant and an alternating current, and in stationary airdromes energy necessary for air courts is received by transfor-mation of an industrial network.
Operation of such means of electrosupply has shown reliability of reception of electric energy. However the question on use of the independent energy source possessing characteristics for performance of necessary operations on all types of aircraft, and also possibility of modular construction remains actual.
Recently works on search of alternative energy sources for electrosupply of air courts are conducted. Transformations wind and a solar energy are considered possibility of use of inertial accumulators. For aircraft as a perspective source of electric energy fuel cells (FC) can be used. In these sources direct transformation of chemical energy in electric is used, there are no rubbing details, they are ecologically pure, economically perspective. Owing to transformation of chemical energy in electric in one stage increase of value of EFFICIENCY to 65 % in difference from thermal ways of reception of energy is reached, in which EFFICIENCY makes 25 %. Fuel elements easier also occupy smaller volume than traditional power supplies. They are silent, heat up less, are more effective from the point of view of fuel transformation. These sources are safe in operation, and minimal requirements to maintenance service have defined possibility of their use on means of land maintenance of flights.
The given values on a direct current are reached by connection definitely FC. By means of inverters it is possible to transform a direct current in variable any face value and, thereby, to receive values for the alternating current systems, necessary for an air vessel.
There is a necessity of carrying out of the analysis of reliability of work FC for the purpose of revealing of term of their operation. Refusals FC are caused basically by processes of degradation of electric characteristics, processes of corrosion of materials, accumulation in cavities of harmful impurity, developments of cracks. Reliability estimation is spent by a method of statistical modelling of Monte-Carlo.
The spent mathematical modelling has shown, that use FC can give a prize not only as electric energy, but also in trouble-free functioning at all stages of life cycle of the electrounit. All these processes are characterised by non-uniformity of display on current-generator surfaces of electrodes, on a surface or in electrolit volume.