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Tracking of Space Objects with a Variable Ratio of Area to Mass in Low Earth Orbit

Keywords:

K. V. Sorokin


Currently, the Earth's orbit is more than 100,000 space objects that were created by humans, only about 21,000 of them is stable tracking. All space objects in near space are constantly changing the parameters of their orbits under the influence of various forces as: the variations of Earth's gravitation field , deceleration in the upper atmosphere, solar radiation pressure, the gravitational field of the moon. This is especially true for space objects with a variable area-to-mass ratio (AMR). Because of some inconsistencies of the model of motion and its real conditions, the perturbing effects are variable and difficult to predict. Despite a steady stream of radar data for some space objects case of failure to monitor, because standard deviation of the components of coordinate measurements with apriori orbit is above the gates in the automatic mode for the binding. This leads to the fact that even for a spherical spacecraft with constant light-reflecting characteristics observed small fluctuations of the size of AMR. Shows the distribution of AMR in a database of space objects. The result showed that 57,69% of the objects have AMR less than 0,01 kg/m2. In this case, space objects with AMR from 0,01 to 0,02 kg/m2 are 12,61%, from 0,02 to 0,05 - 9.10%, from 0,05 to 0,1 - more than 7,91%. Space debris with variable AMR have, as a rule, the value of AMR > 0,1 kg/m2, typical for a 12,70% of objects of space object catalog. In the case of the commissioning of new radars, using the centimeter and millimeter range, the number of tracked space objects with small and variable AMR can greatly increase. It is promoted and design features in the rocket and space technology, since destruction on orbit is the source of the debris. At the moment, being a variety of scientific research in this area. For example, improving the numerical prediction of motion of space objects, a short-term forecast of the dynamic changes in AMR by using frequency response methods, an introduction to the equations of motion of an analytic function of AMR, using the median value. The accumulated results can later be used in order of maintain a database of space objects.
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