earth remote sensing
special earth surface monitoring system
Е. P. Minakov, Е.F. Chichkova, S.A. Fedorov
Remote sensing is important technique of environmental monitoring in cases of natural and technogenic disasters. Requirements to remote sensing data reception efficiency (base: 7 – 30 days, operative: 30 minutes – 1 days), to the spatial resolution (high:0,5 – 2,0 meters, ultrahigh: 0,01 – 0,5 meters), to referencing accuracy (usual: 50 meters, high-precision: 1 – 3 meters) are defined.
Small spacecraft for example "Monitor-e" and "Kondor" created under the Russian-Belarus program "Kosmos-NT" and a number of others are applied to the remote sensing. Space, aviation (helicopter), unmanned (plane type), aeronautic possibilities are various so choice of their structure and input in special monitoring system are required.
The ground-based complex of similar system should provide observation plan for specified surface, operative reception, data recording, a data preprocessing, thematic data processing , data analysis by means GIS, data and processing results storage.
The ground-based complex of special monitoring system on the basis of The State Scientific Center of Russia - Central R&D Institute for Robotics and Technical Cybernetics includes a satellite reception station " UniScan™ ", the automatic workplaces data preprocessing, database support, thematic data processing, network data storehouse and data exchange system. The ground station is designed for receiving and processing information transmitted from Earth low-orbit satellites via X-band (8 GHz) radio channels with the data rates up to 170 Mbps in one channel. Such rates correspond to images with a spatial resolution up to several meters. At present the station provides for reception and processing of data from Terra, Aqua, Monitor-E, IRS-P5, IRS-P6, SPOT 4, EROS A, EROS B and RADARSAT-1 satellites.
Small spacecraft "Soyuz -sat-O" which will be created on the Russian-Belarus program "Kosmos-NT" is expedient for using as a part of an information-measuring subsystem of special monitoring system.