low orbit observation system
space debris small space platforms
D.V. Kirichenko, V.I. Polovnikov
Active use of near-Earth space over the past 50 years to solve the large number of diverse scientific applications, and economic problems led to a specific space factors that could significantly restrict its further safe use of mankind. This factor - space debris, the collection of used or destroyed spacecraft, the means for their elimination, different production units and units traded on the orbits and pose a real threat to operational spacecraft.
At present, national space monitoring stations in different countries realize monitoring space debris, using mostly ground radar and optical equipment. Significantly enhance the capacity of these services is possible due to space-based surveillance with a rational choice of the orbital construction of the system and composition of airborne surveillance spacecraft.
The paper considers the option of constructing low-orbit space system for operational monitoring of space debris with the help of wide-angle airborne electro-optical cameras (patent number 82678, 2009). Under this option, construction of the optical axis of the cameras each spacecraft sent to the neighboring spacecraft system. Space system forms a continuous ring of the zones double vision permanently outside the earth's shadow, through which half of the revolution are all fragments of space debris that are in near-Earth space. Detection of debris produced by their reflected solar radiation. The calculations showed that to ensure effective monitoring of space debris in low altitudes (up to 2000 km), enough for each spacecrafts add two identical cameras with a field of about 20 degrees and penetration better than 12m.
The proposed variant of the construction of a space system can be established on the basis of one existing or emerging small space platforms.