__Keywords:__oscillation systems nonlinear oscillations nonlinear processes nonlinear parametrical resonator parametrical resonance nonlinear-parametrical zone system nonlinear pazone system (NPS) nonlinear environment ferrites superconductors parametrons spectrotrons switching elements inductivity capacity crystals plasma lasers masers regenerative amplifier polystable parametrical generator microminiaturization nanotechnology synergetics nonlinear dynamics scientific revolution synergetic paradigm nano-parametrons quantum magnetic parametrons logical one-electronic parametron

L. V. Cherkesova

The doctrine about oscillations which meet everywhere in the nature, and is applied in all areas of engineering, plays an outstanding role in development of material and spiritual culture of mankind. The parametrical resonance – emergence of rapidly increasing oscillations in mechanical or electric system at periodical variation of its some properties (parameters) – is known for a long time. Possibility of creation of nonlinear-parametrical generators and amplifiers of electromagnetic oscillations has been established for the first time by domestic scientists L.I. Mandelshtam and N.D. Papaleksi in 1931-1933 years. Exactly they for the first time have offered idea of parametrical strengthening of radio signals. M.K. Divil-kovsky, S.M. Rytov, V.V. Migulin, V.I. Medvedev, P.I. Cherednikov, etc. have laid the foundation the theory of nonlinear-parametrical fluctuations with reference to radioelectronics.
In 1947 John fon Neumann has suggested to use as a contactless switching element the electric nonlinear-parametrical zone system which stable conditions differ with various phases of oscillations, that were generated by system. However this system was multielement and difficult in adjustment that has not allowed it to compete to other switching elements manufactured those years by the industry of many countries.
In 1954 the Japanese physicist E.Goto has offered the electric scheme with parametrical excitation – one of possible the variants of the parametrical generator – as a logic element and cells of memories for electronic digital computers and has patented it under the name «parametron». The parametrical elements appeared much simpler and more reliable elements, than fon Neumann's scheme, have drawn at once attention of experts in the field of electronics. Ability of parametrical elements to choose one of several stable phases (property of quantization of a phase) in the XX-th century has led to creation of counter, meters, registers, adders, coder, decoders and other systems of automatics, measuring and computer technique and equipment.
The indicated parametrical devices have a number of valuable qualities: high reliability, profitability (small power consumption), phase sensitivity, in low cost of manufacturing and operation, possibility of their construction on the working frequencies covering a wide range of frequencies.
In electronics also it is necessary to carry to dignities of use of nonlinear parametrical zone systems: small internal noise, noise stability, speed, high radiating stability (on inductive elements), durability. These devices have the ability to function in adverse temperature and seismological conditions that causes possibility of their use for work at earthquakes and other natural accidents, in a free space, at occurrence of emergency situations on atomic power stations (type of the Chernobyl atomic power station), at researches of other planets, in particular, the Moon and Mars.
Their doubtless advantage is possibility of transition from one zone in another in the simple way – by change of amplitude or frequency of a rating. Thus, electronic devices on the basis of NPS already in the XX-th century have found wide application in many areas of a science and techniques: radioelectronics, control systems, the measuring techniques, automatics and control means, medicine, computer facilities, communication systems, etc.
It is proved that classical conditions of a parametrical resonance for nonlinear-parametrical zone systems are not imple-mented already in the first zone of instability. Besides, the new nonlinear phenomenons which are not keeping within classical representations are found out. Among them – non-degenerative unifrequent parametrical regeneration, modes with an aggravation of oscillations, stable equilibrium, formation of compound oscillations in zones of instability without transitional processes, etc.
Subharmonic and combinational fluctuations in nonlinear-parametrical zone systems are deeply studied and is much weaker – ultraharmonious that is connected with complexity of a mathematical apparatus, absence of engineering calculations and corresponding means for their research. Thus, the classical model of parametrical interaction does not describe the precisely enough real nonlinear processes, occurring in nonlinear-parametrical zone system in the higher zones of instability of oscillations. It constrains the development of technical base on the basis of nonlinear-parametrical converters, limits areas of their application and their functionality.
Thus, the imperative need of an establishment of the general law of interaction of nonlinear environments with external influence (rating) in instability zones has ripened. Elaboration of the general theory and the basic methods of qualitative research of parametrical zone systems on a phase plane, construction of mathematical models and research of intensive resonant interactions of nonlinear environments with external influence in instability zones represent considerable theoretical and practical interest.
As it was already marked, the phenomenon of a nonlinear parametrical resonance is inherent in many nonlinear environ-ments and is universal for systems of the live and lifeless nature. Parametrical generators and amplifiers (or their oscillatory nonlinear-parametrical zone system) can serve as convenient physical model of this universal phenomenon for research of oscillations in the first and the higher zones of excitation. Practical application of parametrical devices has impulsed to theoretical and practical researches of similar electronic systems.
Prospects of development of electronic techniques on the basis of NPS in the XXI-st century are described; the review of Internet publications about new workings out nanoelectronic equipment using the phenomenon of a parametrical resonance is given. The quantity of publications increases daily. On the foundation of the majority of new scientific concepts there are the ideas connected by an electromagnetic resonance and nonlinear-parametrical effect.

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