V.N. Makarov, L.G. Suhodolets
Perspectives of creating new superpower transmitters for radars systems were discussed. The main direction of these system development must be increasing of medium power and variations of regime in this wide range. Progress in this direction is limited by parameters of powerful semi-conductor (SCD) and microwave electron (MED) devices. General parameters of the devices of this class were analyzed and compared. Special attention was paid to the analysis of vacuum MED’s defects. As a result of these defects MED were replaced by SCD. Such defect as high level of anode voltage was analyzed in detail. Decrease of magnitude of an operating voltage due to application of the multi-beams streams, introduction of the grid and self-modulated devices allow to expand essentially a range of change of average power MED. Devices of M-type are ideal amplifiers by virtue of weak dependence of an output power and efficiency from level of input signal. Traveling wave tubes can be used as phase shifters. Thus all problems on maintenance of average power, multi regimes and control of a phase of a output signal can be realized with help of MED. The opportunity of effective cooling is essential advantage of MED. To this it is necessary to remind that disseminated heat power of MED is less than at SCD in some times owing to their higher efficiency. It is shown that at sharing already developed MED different types it is possible to create on their basis transmitters with average power of 1000 kW CW and efficiency over 60 %. In this regime all parameters of impulses may have ability to vary in wide range (Ref.15, fig.8, tab.1).