Yu.G. Yanovsky, Y.N. Karnet, N.S. Snegireva, L.V. Pogorelova, E.I. Zaraysky, A.A. Stepanov, I.I. Stepanova
Theoretical and practical aspects of immunechromegraphical (ICh) test - systems development are investigated. These tests find application in medicine, an agriculture, ecological researches, military needs, functioning of the Ministry of Emergency Measures etc. It is determine by several factors: time of the analysis (5-15 minutes), simplicity (no needs in qualified personnel), this factor allowing to put analyses in field conditions and even to use them as domestic tests, low cost (cost of ICh tests for today comes nearer to cost immuneenzymatic analysis), high sensitivity (tens pkg/ml). The system for detection HBsAg - a marker of a hepatitis B was used as one of the models in this work. Hepatitis B the most widespread virus disease on the Earth a problem of development the test - systems for monitoring of the big groups of the population, infection by by virus of a hepatitis B - an actual problem. The quantity infected about two billions person and about 525 000 dies annually from illnesses such as infection by a virus of a hepatitis B - a cirrhosis of a liver, an acute hepatitis B and an initial cancer of a liver.
The possibility of quantitative immunechromegraphical development was investigated. The method and the equipment was offered, it is allowing to spend quantitative registration of an optical signal in the immunechromegraphical strips test-zone with different geometry of tested zones. The influence of viscosity and nature of protein filler sensitivity of immunechromegraphical analysis were investigated. It was shown that the increase of sensitivity immunechromegraphical with the increase of viscosity in 0-10 % solution range. It was shown that sensitivity of immunechromegraphical depends on fillers nature. The system containing bull serum albumin was shown maximal sensitivity from fibers investigated by us. The design of immunechromegraphical system for the detection of wild and mutant HBsAg was developed. Detection of escape - mutants virus of hepatitis B that makes mutant HBsAg is an actual problem. Such antigens can’t be detected by the majority of serially manufacturing diagnostic test – systems, that can result in diagnostic mistakes. It is especially dangerous in the diagnostics of donors blood because it can result in mass infection of the recipients