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Blind Carrier and Phase Estimation of QAM Signal Using Constellation-Matched Nonlinear Transform and the Least-Squares Approach


O.V. Karavan, V.A. Timofeev

This paper presents the blind carrier frequency and phase estimator of QAM signal comprising the two stages. At first signal is subjected to the transform which consists of instant phase multiplication by the integer number and instant amplitude nonlinear transform. As the result the signal turns into additive mixture of noise and harmonic process which parameters relate to the initial signal carrier frequency and phase in a certain way. At the second stage estimations are obtained by means of the least-squares method applying to the transformed signal. Closed-form expressions for estimations asymptotic (large sample size) variances are derived for QAM signal under the AWGN conditions. The expression for optimal nonlinear transform is derived by means of this variances minimization. The estimator presented can be applied to a wide variety of constellations and has high statistical efficiency. The results obtained by means of simulation are in good agreement with theoretical calculations

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