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Reduction of backscattering of the waveguide phased array antenna when changing the phase distribution

DOI 10.18127/j20700784-201911-08


A.V. Kraychko – Dr.Sc. (Eng.), Professor, Department of Radio Engineering and Optoelectronic Complexes, Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation
M.B. Ryzhikov – Ph.D. (Eng.), Associate Professor, Department of Radio Engineering and Optoelectronic Complexes, Saint Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation

The problem of reducing backscattering for a waveguide phased array antenna with a frequency-selective surface is solved. The frequency-selective surface reduces backscattering outside the frequency band of the antenna. It is important to reduce the scattering at the operating frequency. The conditions of radar detection of airborne antennas from a long distance were analyzed. They showed that the backscattering of the antenna is superior to the backscattering of the aircraft body in a narrow range of angles in the vertical plane. Additional calculations were performed to establish this range of angles in the horizontal plane.
To reduce the radar cross section of the antenna in this frequency range, it was necessary to investigate the factors that determine the scattering field. For this purpose, mathematical relations were found, allowing to calculate the scattering field of the antenna taking into account the re-emission of the incident field in waveguide paths. This allowed us to establish that the scattering field depends on the matching coefficient with the receiver and on the phase set on the phase shifters. The results of the calculations proved that in the horizontal plane, as well as vertical, the main scattering is concluded in the region of angles smaller than the angles in which the main beam of the radiation pattern is contained. With good agreement, when the standing wave coefficient approaches one, the scattering decreases. The remaining part of the field can be significantly reduced by controlling the re-emitted energy using phase shifters. The effect of random phase distribution on the effective scattering area was studied. The parameters of the normal random phase distribution depending on the linear size of the antenna surface were obtained, which guaranteed a field reduction of at least 13 dB. From different implementations of the normal distribution, a special case of a random phase distribution was also found, using which the difference was at least 16 dB. In addition, it was found that the main beam of the scattering field can be deflected down to an angle greater than the width of the antenna radiation pattern. This is done using a linear phase foray over the phase shifters. At the same time, the average scattering cross section is reduced by about 18 dB.

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