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Optimization of the shape of low-element antenna arrays in azimuth or elevation by minimizing the generalized expression of the Cramer–Rao lower bound

DOI 10.18127/j03209601-201905-06


Yu. B. Nechaev – Honored Scientist of RF, Dr.Sc. (Phys.-Math.), Professor, Professor of Information Systems Department, Voronezh State University
I. V. Peshkov – Ph.D. (Phys.-Math.), Associate Professor, Associate Professor of Department of Physics, Radio Engineering and Electronics, Bunin Yelets State University

Evaluation of the angular coordinates of radio emission sources is of serious research interest in such tasks as radiolocation, sonar and wireless telecommunication systems and is mainly used for separation of goals. The configurations of the used antenna arrays, which were investigated, are mainly concerned uniform linear, uniform rectangular, as well as uniform annular arrays. The main advantage of linear arrays for radio direction finding tasks is the narrow main lobe of the radiation pattern, however, scanning is possible only in the azimuth plane. In the tasks requiring both azimuth and elevation direction finding, planar arrays were used. To date, works devoted to a comparative study of the characteristics of radio direction finding with superresolution for different configurations of the AR often only concern one or two types of arrays, and therefore obtaining an array with the best characteristics is very important.
In this article, a method has been proposed for constructing antenna arrays of optimal shape from the point of view of reducing radio direction finding errors in azimuth or elevation. The proposed method consists in minimizing the generalized expression of the Cramer–Rao lower boundary, which shows that the accuracy of radio direction finding is inversely proportional to the sum of the squares of the differences between the coordinates of all omnidirectional elements along the axes of the abscissas, ordinates, and applicates. Thus, knowing the intended area of the source of the signal, the arrangement of the elements of the antenna array is optimized in accordance with the maximum likelihood function. Study of the MUSIC method is being conducted, showing that new forms of antenna arrays have better accuracy than circular ones.

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May 29, 2020

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