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Composite materials for aviation, energetics, mechanical engineering

DOI 10.18127/j19998465-201902-05

Keywords:

D.I. Davletchin – Ph.D.(Eng.), RTU MIREA (Moscow); Senior Research Scientist, All-Russian Institute Of Aviation Materials (Moscow)
E-mail: damir2000@mail.ru


One of the important modern directions of material studies lies in the construction of new materials containing several or more com-ponents, with different composition and divided by clear border (CM – composition materials). It is possible to construct a CM within a necessary form – it is a great advantage over usual materials.
In CM their feature are defined by the components, their physical and chemical qualities and the steadiness of their connection. The highest steadiness is obtained by the chemical compound of the matrix and the fittings. One should separately mention carbonaceous fibers, widely used for arming the CM with metal, ceramic and polymeric matrix. The features of heat-resistant CM are unique but there are certain qualities due to which they do not get spread and are used only within a branch need.
A negative feature of CM can be in their toxicity of the components and phenol formaldehyde conjunctions on the stage of forming the model; it requires the constant monitoring of ecological situation by, e.g. inversion voltammetry analyzers, developed by us for such purposes. Having exclusive unique characteristics, CM are necessary for the development of high temperature technologies, in modern aviation gas turbine engines, rockets, in the schemes of nozzles for traction vector control, in wing edges, for the protection of antenna feeder devices, in aviation brake disks, in everything that can provide for the construction of aviation technologies of the 6th generation, with the speed of 5M.
The base of the matrix developed in All-Russian Institute of Aviation Materials (VIAM) for high-temperature glass-ceramic is borosilicate or glass-ceramic, armed with fiber carbon materials. The methods of constructing CM include: reaction sintering, high vacuum pressing, chemical vapor deposition, chemical vapor infiltration, zohl-gel technologies, synairesis, spark plasma sintering.
The advantages of the method are obvious: the processing of conductive and non-conductive CM, the possibility to compress up to full density, high homogeneity, the stable connections between the particles, the uniformity of heat distribution, the density control, full density, the reduction of working cycle, the evaporation of additives, minimal grain growth, the simplification of the process by excluding the operations of preliminary handlings by pressure and using conjunctive materials etc. The special features of the method are high expenditures on import equipment and the possibility of constructing the details of simple forms so far.
So, it can be concluded that these additive technologies are modern and perspective which bring the opportunity to create complicated 3D-models within a fully automatic process. It should be emphasized that domestic equipment must dominate in this advanced sphere of material studies.

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