D.I. Chernyshov – Post-graduate Student, Bauman Moscow State Technical University
The last decade is characterized by intense development of sniper weapon to the way of comprehensive decreasing bullet dispersion characteristics and increasing fire distance. Current situation at modern war fields requires for sniper rifles fire accuracy is no more than 1 MOA at 1000 m shooting distance. For perspective sniper rifles such requirements are more tough: bullets dispersion is no more than 0.5 MOA and shooting distance is not less than 1500 m. Concerning a field of developments and design of sniper weapon samples emerged perspective ways of bullets dispersion decreasing such as sighting system Precision Guided Firearm from Tracking Point Company equipped automatic fire control and sniper guided 12.7×99 (.50 BMG) bullet project with trajectory correction EXACTO from Sandia National Lab.
The Precision Guided Firearm sighting system includes an optical lens, a television camera, a calculating unit with built-in ballistic cal-culators that allow to place the aim mark in the necessary position corresponding to the range to the target (the range is determined automatically with built-in laser rangefinder) with allowance for weather conditions (temperature and air pressure, direction and wind speed recorded by a portable weather station and transmitted to the device through a wireless link). In addition, the scope includes sensors that monitor the position of the weapon itself, as well as a laser sensor for monitoring «zero», for automatic alignment of the sight of the weapon’s barrel position.
In the nose part of the EXACTO bullet there is a reading optical sensor, designed to receive the reflected laser beam from the target. This method of guidance is used to aim the target in guided missiles, artillery ammunition, and corrected air bombs.
The hit probability both systems tends to 100% at shooting distances announced by the manufacturers. Similar perspective systems can allow to achieve a maximum shooting accuracy and significantly simplify a shooting at moving targets.
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