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Investigation of the features of the trajectory signal during the rotation of the phase center of the real antenna and observation of ground moving targets

DOI 10.18127/j20700784–201810–08


D.A. Yasencev – Ph.D. (Eng.), Associate Professor, Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University)
A.V. Sergeev – Student, Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University)

Search for small-size ground moving targets (GMT) – one of the main tasks for airborne radar survey of the underlying surface of mil-itary aircraft. The complexity of this task is due to the low speeds and small dimensions of the observed GMT. Modern indication of GMT (GMTI) is not limited to the decision on the presence of mobile objects in the viewing area, but is a set of modes that allow to solve various functional problems, including the assessment of the radial velocities of GMT, the correction of the position of their marks on the generated radar images (RI) in the mode of mapping of the underlying surface, as well as the indication of GMT marks on the RI.
Detection of small-sized GMTI is most often carried out with a long coherent accumulation of the reflected signal when the radar carrier moves, or the synthesis of an artificial antenna aperture. This increases the radar's angular resolution, which increases the signal-to-background ratio in the resolution element for moving objects. The disadvantage of such approaches in the GMT is the migration of the GMT mark in azimuth, to compensate for which it is required to use the complication of radar antenna systems and special processing algorithms.
By rotating the phase center of the real antenna (PC RA), it is also possible to form a synthesized aperture that increases the angular resolution of the onboard radar. This, for example, it is possible to implement the installation of directional antennas in the end of the rotor blade carrier helicopter type. Since the trajectory of the PC RA in this case will be different from the rectilinear one, which is traditionally used in radar with antenna aperture synthesis, the type of frequency modulation of the trajectory signal, which becomes harmonic, also changes significantly.
The analytical study showed that the response of the optimal trajectory signal processing system is not deformed in comparison with the case of fixed target sighting when observing the GMT and the rotation of the PC RA. At the same time, the lack of compensation for the movement of the target leads to a significant deformation of the response, the form of which is determined by the Bessel function of the first kind, the order of which is determined by the radial velocity of the GMT. The deformation of the response is reduced to the displacement of the maximum and defocusing the response, leading to its expansion in azimuth and the appearance of high-level side lobes.

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