A.A. Tomilov – Ph.D.(Mil.), Professor, Department of Automobile Training, MESC «Zhukovsky–Gagarin Air Force Academy» (Voronezh)
A.E. Lomovskikh – Ph.D.(Eng.), Senior Lecturer, Department of Automobile Training, MESC «Zhukovsky–Gagarin Air Force Academy» (Voronezh)
A.A. Baglaev – Post-graduate Student, Department of Automobile Training, MESC «Zhukovsky–Gagarin Air Force Academy» (Voronezh)
V.I. Vigdorovich – Dr.Sc.(Chem.), Professor, Honored Scientist of RF, Academic of RANS, Main Research Scientist, All-Russian SRI of Use of Technics and Oil Products (Tambov)
The article presents an analysis of the technical readiness of automobiles in the Arctic region – the Novaya Zemlya region, the Ark-hangelsk region at an ambient temperature of −50°C, which was performed taking into account the design features of the vehicles, their completeness with technical means of preparedness, used fuels, oils and lubricants, and also the accumulated experience on the results of testing various vehicles in the cold chamber.
In this article, in order to ensure a reliable start-up of the KAMAZ V8 diesel engine in the cold state at temperatures down to −50°C, it is proposed to improve the physicochemical properties of diesel fuel filled in a regular tank of diesel vehicles in order to increase the completeness of fuel combustion. This is especially important when the diesel engine is operating for the first few minutes after the cold start, which is accompanied by the release of a large amount of toxic smoke.
Also in the article new energy-efficient approaches to the solution of the problem of obtaining fuels possessing high consumer properties and ecological indicators especially in low temperature conditions are considered. Developed technologies are based on cavitation in liquid media. It is shown that cavitation substantially intensifies many chemical-technological processes in liquids.
The essence of the proposed method for improving the technical readiness of motor vehicles in the Arctic region is that the fuel poured into the fuel tank is subjected to cavitation in the rotor-pulsating apparatus.
When processing fuel by intensive cavitation, the degree of dispersion of the residual fractions particles increases, the conglomerates of the polymerization products are destroyed. Under the influence of cavitation in high-viscosity fuels, hydrocarbon molecules are cleaved by C–C bonds into lighter ones, and active radicals that determine improvement of the main qualitative characteristics of the fuel: a decrease in viscosity by 4 or more times, a decrease in density to 3%, a decrease in the flash point by an average of 30%, grinding of conglomerates of residual fractions to a particle fraction of 1…5 μm.
The rotary pulsation apparatus is installed in the engine fuel line behind the coarse filter, diesel fuel is pumped into it by an additional electric pump and then discharged back to the standard fuel tank. Thus, all diesel fuel, which is in a regular fuel tank, is processed in the apparatus. Such a device, unlike other types, can produce high-quality processing of diesel fuel at relatively low energy costs. The device uses periodic transient hydromechanical processes with excitation of hydrodynamic, acoustic and impulse cavitation.
As a result of processing by a rotary pulsation apparatus in diesel fuel, a decrease in the content of a mass fraction of sulfur (by 1.5…2 times) and a concentration of resins (up to 9 times) is observed.
Also tests carried out on the rotary pulsation apparatus installed on the truck Ural-4320 showed that the content of toxic compounds in the exhaust gases, depending on the engine operating mode, decreases by CO – up to 79%; by NO and NO2 (NOx) – up to 14%.
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