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Features of electric low-frequency noise in semiconductors


B.I. Yakubovich – Ph.D.(Phys.-Math.), Senior Research Scientist, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute named by B.P. Konstantinov of NRC «Kurchatov Institute»

The electric noise in solids in the field of low frequencies mainly is defined by excess low-frequency noise. In semiconductors, the origin of excess noise is usually connected with fluctuations in the number of free charge carriers caused by capture and emission of charge carriers by traps formed by structural defects. The electric noise in semiconductors caused by traps was considered. Influence on noise of heat liberation in semiconductor occurring owing to flow in it electric current was studied.
Flow of current in solid material causes heat liberation which increases material temperature. The connection between the intensity of electric noise and the heating of semiconductor due to current flowing in it was investigated. Description is given of the electrical fluc-tuations in semiconductors caused by the capture and emission of charge carriers in traps. The dependence of the fluctuation intensity on temperature is shown. The dependence of the noise intensity in semiconductors on temperature increase caused by current flow is established. Further connection of change of temperature in semiconductor with value of current flowing in it and characteristics of semiconductor was investigated. Process of heat liberation in semiconductor material at flow of current was for this purpose analyzed. Heat conduction equation in the case under consideration is solved. Expression is obtained for the temperature of material when the current flows in it. Quantitative connection is established between the increase in the temperature of semiconductor with the value current flowing in it, properties of semiconductor, and heat exchange of semiconductor with environment. Expression which strictly takes into account influence of heat liberation on noise and establishes connection of intensity of noise with current, properties of semiconduc-tor, heat exchange of semiconductor with environment is as a result calculated.
It is established that the heat liberation at current flow can lead to decrease in the normalized noise in semiconductor. Conditions under which there is noise reduction are determined. The expression allowing to determine the value of noise reduction is calculated. The obtained results give possibility to establish what semiconductor materials most efficiently to use for noise reduction. Possibility of reducing noise intensity in semiconductors has the prospect of applied applications for improving quality of semiconductor materials and semiconductor devices.
As a result, strict description of the electric noise in semiconductors caused by capture and emission of charge carriers by traps is given, in which heat liberation in semiconductors connected with current flow is taken into account. Dependences of intensity of noise on the value of current, properties of semiconductor, heat exchange of semiconductor with environment are established. Decrease in the normalized noise owing to heat liberation at current flow is revealed, conditions under which there is noise reduction are determined. The results obtained make it possible to more fully and accurately determine the characteristics and properties of electrical noise in semiconductors at low frequencies and can be used for applied purposes.

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