A.A. Kopylov – Chairman of Voluntary inventive fund «IZFOND» (Moscow)
Note that the debate about the existence of the Zenneсk wave continues for more than 100 years. L.A. Vainshtein asserts that «Transmitting antennas of the surface wave of the Zenneck do not actually excite, and it does not have a real meaning for the prop-agation of radio waves over land or sea, the field of radio waves has a completely different structure»
Previously, it was noted that the proposed experimental studies of the SEW and the scheme refer to the frequency range from 1 GHz to 12 GHz. This is indeed the case, and this is due to the fact that the measuring antennas P6-23 are used, which are calibrated precisely in this frequency range. From this it follows that for an experimental study of an SEW in another frequency range it is only sufficient to replace only antennas that can be simply converted from a spatial antenna into an antenna of an SEW, as was done with a spatial antenna P6-23. It was simply installed on the underlying surface of the SEW and it turned into an antenna of the SEW emitting and receiving an SEW of the «SEW – Radio wave» type. In addition, the proposed experimental studies of the SEW and the circuit make it possible to carry out experimental studies of practically any transmission lines of the SEW and to determine their effectiveness. It can be metallized and metal lines of transmission of SEW, both flat and cylindrical or other shapes. This may be the surface of the plasma, including the ionospheric, sea surface, including ice. It should be noted that in some cases, Additional devices capable of providing excitation of the SEW or matching the underlying surface of the SEW with the transmission line of the SEW. These technical difficulties can be overcome. It is important that these experimental studies will allow the design of the most effective devices and systems on the SEW of the «SEW – Radio wave» type. Practice shows that design errors due to neglect of experimental research often lead to additional economic costs, in some cases very significant. [2−5, 18]. It follows from the foregoing that the SEW is formed in two main ways (in two main cases). In the first case, the SEW is formed due to the surface current flowing along the conducting surface. This is a «near-surface» SEW. There is no surface current - there is no SEW. In the second case, the SEW is formed by the antenna of the SEW. In this case, the SEW is excited on the underlying surface of the SEW, propagating along the surface of the transmission line of the SEW. In this case, an SEW of the form «SEW - Radio wave» is formed. It is, in general, an indivisible sum of two parts, in the form of a volume wave and a «near-surface» wave that excites the surface current and localizes (supports) the SEW in close proximity to the surface of the SEW. «No SEW - no surface current». The authors' report on the experimental detection of the Zenneck wave should be considered erroneous, at least until the opposite is proven. . The SEWs formed by the first and second methods are physically significantly different. This fact is not all theoretical researchers take into account and publish controversial and erroneous theoretical reports. [6−10, 14]. Especially it should be noted that there are currently no strict theoretical, near-reality studies. The theory of excitation and propagation of SEWs according to the first method is known (see , pp. 46−50), where the SEW is formed in an «unbounded homogeneous space in which, in the z = 0 plane, the distribution of an infinitely thin external electric current Current), the amplitude of which is constant throughout the considered Plane, and the phase changes according to the law of the traveling wave in the direction of the x axis. The theory of excitation and propagation of SEW by the second method is known (see , pp. 106−118), where «the problem of finding a field excited by an electric dipole located at an altitude d above a plane boundary of two media is considered.«Both of these methods are far from reality. This is what determines the fact that the theoretical studies that use these theories are not supported by experimental studies. In addition, this is precisely what determines the fact that when designing effective devices and systems for SEW, an experimental base for specific experimental studies is needed. In addition, it should be noted that almost any antenna has its own conductive surface, on which the SEW is excited and along which it propagates. In addition, when analyzing the work of K.P. Kharchenko it turns out that the source of radiation of the antenna is a standing EMW, which is formed due to the SEW running along, for example, a vibrator and an SEW reflected from the end of the vibrator. . Thus, the SEW can be either in the form of a traveling EMV or in the form of a standing EMW. To antennas, the excitation source of which is the traveling SEW is, for example, the Beverage antenna and the helical antenna. In the case where the underlying surfaces of the aerial antennas are connected by the transmission line of the SEW to each other, when comparing and analyzing the energy (power) of the measured values, other things being equal, the following relationship can be used, which allows to detect the Zenneck wave (SEWZ) if it exists.
We will carry out a more detailed analysis of the initial condition of the EMW study, which led to significant problems in electrodynamics. This condition determines that there is a «volumetric EMW and a surface EMW». One can imagine that the volume contains three components. This is the length, width and height. In the case of a surface EMW, the Zenneck wave, researchers believe that the altitude is absent and there is no volume. This is what leads to problems. It is known that, for example, the surface current «Has» a height, which is defined as the thickness of the skin layer. There is such a thing as the bulk current density. It is also determined that the SEW decreases along the normal to the surface exponentially. It follows from this that the vertical dimension of this exponential can be considered as the height of the SEW. This means that the SEW can also be a volumetric EMW. If the height is zero, then the exponent is equal to one. This will be the surface wave of Zennek (SEWZ). However, the researchers, based on the initial condition, do not take this into account. When determining the Zenneck wave, it is likely that altitude was not taken into account at all. It also follows from this that the initial condition for the investigation of the EMW should be that there is a «spatial EMW (SEMW) and a surface EMW (SEW)». In this case, it should be borne in mind that the SEW can be a volumetric EMW, and the Zennec wave is not a volumetric EMW. In addition, the HDPE should not be considered a radio wave. It should be agreed with L.A. Weinstein, who claims that «Transmitting antennas of the Zenneck surface wave do not actually excite, and it does not really matter for the propagation of radio waves over land or sea, the field of radio waves has a completely different structure». . The SEWZ exists only in theory. It is necessary to prove experimentally that the Zenneck wave exists and the fact that it is a radio wave, but for example, V.V. Shevchenko, based on erroneous reports, theoretically determines the method of experimental comparison of a bulk wave with a surface wave whose height is zero (θ = π / 2, the Zenneck wave) and suggests that it is compared experimentally, which is almost impossible to do. . It is necessary to prove experimentally that the Zenneck wave exists and that it is a radio wave. Concerning the «terrestrial» wave, it should be noted that in general it is surface, that is, SEW, if the underlying surface and the transmission line is a conductor and there is no reason to believe that it can not be volumetric. For a more complete measurement of the parameters of EMW and SEW, in some cases additional measuring devices will be required, which allow measuring parameters both on the surface and in the immediate vicinity of it. To such devices it is possible to carry indicators of components EMW in the form of measuring antennas, such as pin Measuring antenna and frame measuring antenna. (See, for example, [21−29]). One should pay attention to the fact that the number of external sources of electromagnetic waves (EMW) is constantly growing on Earth. For example, Wi-Fi, etc. It follows that the creation of both individual means of protection against EMW, and the creation of objects of invisible objects against EMW in a wide frequency range is an urgent task. One way to create such devices and systems is the method of broadband absorption of SEW along the conductive surface. It should be remembered that the main source of excitation, emission and reception of EMW in the antenna is its own SEW.
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