Andrey Porfiryev - National Research University of Electronic Technology, Shokin Square 1, Zelenograd, Moscow, Russian Federation
Dmitry Telyshev - National Research University of Electronic Technology, Shokin Square 1, Zelenograd, Moscow, Russian Federation
Aleksandr Pugovkin - National Research University of Electronic Technology, Shokin Square 1, Zelenograd, Moscow, Russian Federation
Sergey Selishchev - National Research University of Electronic Technology, Shokin Square 1, Zelenograd, Moscow, Russian Federation
End-stage heart failure (HF) is a major cause of mortality, morbidity and disability worldwide. Nowadays, a surgical and medical treatment of HF has a positive trend. But heart transplantation remains an optimal treatment of endstage HF. A shortage of donor organs has made this therapy available only for limited number of patients (1). This problem required a development of ventricular assist devices (VADs) for critically ilium patients. The first devices had large dimension, but by the aid of engineering and technology developers have the opportunity to reduce the dimensions of VADs (2, 3). This feature allows the use of VADs for treatment of patients with small body surface area. However, the miniaturization of pump components may lead to a high hemolysis level (4, 5). Thrombus formation remains a serious problem of axial and centrifugal ventricular assist devices (6-8).
A typical construction of axial VAD consists of a flow straightener, an inlet bearing, an impeller, an outlet bearing and a diffuser in series, and a stator (9, 10). Mechanical friction between the pump components in such devices is accompanied by heat generation, which depends on the pump design (11).
Conversion of electrical energy to thermal energy is inherent for any motor under normal operation mode (12). Heat dissipation occurs due to thermal emissions from pump housing and heat transmission of blood moving through a device. Herewith excessive heat generation can adversely affect the blood hemolysis level and the protein denaturation increasing the probability of thrombus formation (13). As a result the pump failure probability increases. This problem can be solved only by emergency surgery with full replacement of implanted VAD (14, 15). Currently, the influence of thrombosis on a rotary blood pump heat generation is not fully investigated. Therefore, in vitro tests were conducted in hydraulic closed loop using the rotary blood pump of the Sputnik VAD to determine the nature of heat generation for different conditions which are typical for implantable systems. Since 2012 the Sputnik VAD successfully used to replace of left ventricular function for patients with HF. This VAD is the axial and continuous flow pump.
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