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Experimental study of the mechanical properties of materials for physical modelling of biological tissues

DOI 10.18127/j15604136-201805-08

Keywords:

Irina Khaydukova - BMSTU/ Department « Biomedical Technical Systems », Baumanskaya 2-ya, 5/1, Moscow, Russia

Arina Rezvanova - BMSTU/ Department « Biomedical Technical Systems », Baumanskaya 2-ya, 5/1, Moscow, Russia

Nikita Belikov - BMSTU/ Department « Biomedical Technical Systems », Baumanskaya 2-ya, 5/1, Moscow, Russia

Gennadiy Savrasov - BMSTU/ Department « Biomedical Technical Systems », Baumanskaya 2-ya, 5/1, Moscow, Russia

Contact: irina.khaydukova@mail.ru


Testing of the different modes of surgical devices includes tests on autopsy material. In this case, the major limitations are difficult biological samples acquisition, the heterogeneity of tissue properties and the dependence of mechanical properties on storage time and temperature. 
An alternative to testing on autopsy materials is the modeling of surgical intervention. Modeling can be physical, analytical and computer-simulated.
Computer-simulated modeling (finite element analysis) has the advantage of unlimited ranges of parameter changes in the study. However, the parameters for the analysis are rarely fully described for biological tissues. Also, the computer modeling is a solution to a simplified task, which do not reflect all processes occurring in a real operation. Analytical modeling offers investigation of mathematical models of biological tissues, but the modeling of surgical exposure is also simplified.
Physical modeling offers a possibility to study the effect of surgical intervention on the physical model of tissue (phan tom). The physical model simulates the target tissue. It is made from material that fits best the required criteria, for example the Young’s modulus. Therefore, in tests on blood vessels, for example, it would be much easier to have a model that could mimic the physical vascular properties.
A paper review of the values of the Young's modulus for various vessels and their layers showed that according to [1], the static Young's modulus of the coronary artery is 2.3 MPa with a tensile pressure of 100 mm Hg. For the abominal aorta the Young's modulus lies in the range from 0.1 MPa to 1.2 MPa at a tensile pressure from 1 mm Hg. to 90 mm Hg. [2]. According to [3], the Young's modulus of the coronary artery in men, depending on age, lies in the range from 0.9 MPa to 5 MPa. For women, the range is from 0.9 MPa to 4 MPa.
Physical models allow tests on large volumes of samples, in comparison with the autopsy material. Homogeneity of phantom properties increases the repeatability of results. The method of physical modeling allows to more accurately estimate the influence on tissue comparing to analytical and finite element modeling. Materials used for physical modeling are often made by mixing two components: the main component (MC) and the supplementary one. When the ratio of MC in the mixture changes, the mechanical properties of the model also change. In this paper, the criterion for the similarity of material and biological tissue are mechanical characteristics.
The main mechanical characteristic of the material is the Young's modulus, so the selection of the material is based on the correspondence of the Young's modulus to the real tissues.

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