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The logic of synaptic sensitization as an addition to the threshold logic of the control of the neuron integration activity


G.M. Alakoz – Dr.Sc. (Eng.), Professor, Supervisor, ANO Institute for System Analysis of Financial Security Problems (Moscow)
A.S. Dobrotvorskiy – System technician, ANO «Institute of Povedenie» (Moscow)
T.S. Zamolodchikova – Ph.D. (Chem.), Senior Research Scientist, Physiology of Motivation Laboratory, P.K. Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology (Moscow)
A.V. Kotov – Dr.Sc. (Med.), Professor, Head of the Laboratory, P.K. Anokhin Research Institute of Normal Physiology (Moscow)
S.I. Plyaskota – Ph.D. (Eng.), Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Missile and Artillery Sciences, Director for Scientific Programs, ANO Institute for System Analysis of Financial Security Problems (Moscow)
V.V. Sherstnev – Dr.Sc. (Med.), Professor, Head of the Laboratory, P.K. Anokhin Research Institute of Nor-mal Physiology (Moscow)

The fundamental basis of research is:
a) the theory of convergent closure of P.K. Anokhin Scientific Research Institute of Normal Physiology, according to which, in the development of classical conditioned reflexes, the previously indifferent stimulus (light, sound, etc.) passes into a class of functionally significant and stimulates the anticipated reaction of the organism (for example, saliva), and the starting nature of this stimulus persists only in a certain set of external conditions;
b) the basic principle of evolution, according to which structures do not appear de novo, but only modified in the process of adaptive activity;
c) the concept of integrative activity of real neurons, which focuses not on the perceptron paradigm of the space-time summation of electrical potentials on the neuron membrane, but on neurochemical mechanisms supporting the plasticity of the synaptic channels, which is typical for the processes of elaborating conditioned reflexes and other forms of adaptive activity of organisms;
d) structurally-parametric methods and means of information transformation combined in time and space with data transmission, which are approved in aerospace computing systems.
On this basis it is shown:
1. Threshold logic is not the only formal model of the functioning mechanisms of real neurons, where highly specific and selective sensitization can serve as an active neurochemical link that provides a physiologically important dominance of one of the input excitations over the other during the formation of the output response of the integrated synaptic channel.
2. The historically established dominance of threshold logic in real and formal neuron models is largely due to the fact that its mechanisms are adequate to input and output digital-analog and analog-to-digital transformations, while the mechanisms of post-synaptic logic are adequate to internal neurochemical transformations that support the integrative activity of neurons.
3. Post-synaptic sensitive logic is built on the metrological paradigm «the more accurate, the better», within which the maximum «confidence» in decision-making is given to a value measured with higher accuracy. Under these conditions, the choice of individual metrics and the metric relations assigned to them is non-trivial, beyond the scope of this article and requires separate research within the overall objective of assessing the accuracy of sensitization. This question becomes particularly relevance in the transition to quantum computation, in which the generally accepted concepts of quantities and their «proximity» are violated, which underlie measurements as such.
4. The precision mechanisms of sensitization of post-synaptic channels do not reduce the stability of integrative activity of neurons due to the high specificity and selectivity characteristic of resonant interactions;
5. The conditional sensitization serves as the basis for the singular transformation [14] of commutation functions used as primitives into the operational functions of von Neumann combination machines.
6. The distinguishing feature of the dominant can be the fact that a certain type of excitation not only fulfills the specific functions of «internal» prefix control, but also retains its original information purpose, reflected in the output reaction.

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