A. A. Volkov – Ph.D. (Eng.), Lecturer, Military Educational-Research Centre of Air Force «Air Force Academy named after professor N.E. Zhukovsky and Y.A. Gagarin» (Voronezh)
In a number of practical problems using high-power microwave relativistic generators, it is required to obtain an even distribution of the field around the radio emitting means, which can be provided by means of a cylindrical surface antenna. Such an antenna is a dielectric window for outputting the electromagnetic energy of the generator, located on the lateral surface of its working chamber in the form of a cylinder and separating the vacuum paths and air space. When radiating of super-powerful fields on the surface of the window from the air side, an electric breakdown can occur. In this connection, it becomes necessary to estimate the breakdown parameters of the radiation and to take them into account when specifying the requirements for powerful generators. The purpose of the work is to determine the expression connecting the maximum permissible breakdown parameters of the radiation of a cylindrical surface antenna of a microwave generator with its dimensions and air environment parameters. The solution of the problem was obtained on the basis of the breakdown criterion in gases taking into account the shape of the radiating surface of the antenna and the dependence of the breakdown level of the electric field strength on the time parameters of the radiated sequence of pulses for air. It is shown that cylindrical surface antennas are more preferable for the breakdown of the fields of powerful relativistic generators. For different modes of generation and types of field distribution over the radiating surface, the dependencies of the maximum permissible breakdown power in the antenna on the pulse duration are calculated. It is established that the greatest power is allowed to radiate an antenna with a uniform distribution of the field along the radiating surface in the single-pulse generation mode. The increase in the duration and number of radiated pulses, as well as the reduction in the period of their repetition, reduce the maximum permissible power in the antenna.
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