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The absorbtion of radio waves in the regions of cold ionization of space nuclear explosion

Keywords:

B.I. Semyonov – Dr.Sc.(Eng.), Professor, Senior Research Scientist, CRI for Aerospace Defense of Defense Ministry RF
V.V. Tryockin – Ph.D.(Eng.), Associate Professor, Senior Research Scientist, CRI for Aerospace Defense of Defense Ministry RF


The most probable cause of the emergence of asteroid comet threat is the encounter of out planet with dangerous space objects having the sizes of tens and hundreds of meters, which can be detected some days or weeks before the encounter [1]. The neutralization of such objects under the conditions of acute shortage of time is possible in close proximity to earth only while using nuclear-missile technologies [2−4].
Along with absorbtion of radio waves mutual interferences disturbing the frequency – territory separation which is chosen for providing electromagnetic compatibility of radio-electronic means are to be considered as the worst consequences of space nuclear explosions.
As it is shown in [12], while simulating mutual interferences it is necessary to have also boundaries of explosion products scattering as reference data. Therefore for estimating an error of calculating the boundaries of explosion products scattering it is necessary to use experimental data on radio wave attenuation in the regions of cold ionization of space nulear explosion which give information on its position.
The problems of absorbtion of radio waves in the region of cold ionization of space nuclear explosions are considered in the paper. Clear differentiation between the lower region of increased ionization and the Beta-region has been carried out and methods of calculating absorbtion in these regions which are based on simulating values Nx,y and Nβ along the beam connecting the observed object and the Radio-Electronic Means with the subsequent numerical integration have been suggested in [25].
The exactness of the suggested methods is evaluated. Asymptotic formulas for approximate estimation of radio waves attenuation both in the lower region of increased ionization and in the Beta- region have been obtained and these formulas ean be used in the interval 0…300 sec from the moment of explosion. Particular attention is given to the experimental data on absorbtion of radio waves in the Beta – region and to the subsequent estimation of parameters in the analytical model of the boundaries of explosion products scattering.
This gives the possibility to estimate the territory, on which a new mechanism of long-distance radio wave propagation, that disturbs electromagnetic compatibility of radio-electronic means, arises [12]. Clear differentiation between the lower region of increased ioni-zation and the Beta-region gave the possibility to determine the region of increasid ionization in the E and F1 ionospheric layers which arises at the expense of redistribution of charged particles under the influence of longitudinal currents [13].
However they shouldn’t be classified as regions of cold ionization because in the areas where longitudinal currens flow out energy of electrons can reach the value of the order of 10 electro-Volt and more [44, 47], and absorbtion in the decimeter wavelength range as well as in the ionized explosion area [10] can be equal to tens decibels per time which is of the order of hundreds of seconds.

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