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The use of distributed heating for thermal destruction of tumors (the brief review)


V.N. Makarov - Dr.Sc. (Phys.-Math.), Professor, Institute of Cybernetics, Moscow Technology University,  Supervisor of the Company «Technosvet», Moscow

In order to create large volumes of heating with radiofrequency ablation of tumors, an analysis of existing constructive solutions for the implementation of electrodes has been carried out. It is shown that single electrodes have limitations on the maximum value of the power supplied to them. Exceeding the power above the limit value leads to the formation of a "cocoon" from the dried tissue and the subsequent breaking of the electrical supply circuit. At the same time, cooling or wetting the working region of the electrode does not lead to cardinal improvements. To significantly increase the volume of the thermal field, it is necessary to increase the number of electrodes, and thermal sources should be located around the tumor without touching it. Known solutions of the problem with the help of three electrodes clustered together are limited by the resulting heating unevenness with increasing interelectrodes distance and a significant increase in the heating time due to the necessity of sequential connection of the electrodes to the output channels of the generator. These limitations are absent in the domestic four-channel device for tumor ablation, which allows one to connect to the generator from 1 to 12 electrodes with thermocouples and control their temperature, presetting a certain profile of temperature variation with time. Maintaining a set temperature on the electrodes programmatically allows you to abandon their artificial cooling and simplify the design of the plant, eliminating the pumps and cooling systems. The developed single-row and double-row systems allow heating of large diameter tumors without contact of the electrodes with the tumor. The doubling of single-pole electrodes makes it possible to increase the number of simultaneously operating electrodes and to reduce the number of switches, thereby reducing the time of the procedure. An additional option of the new installation is the possibility of working with electrosurgical instruments for coagulation and tissue resection.

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June 24, 2020
May 29, 2020

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