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Algorithms, methods and equipment for analysis of heart rate patterns in physical load testing

Keywords:

A.L. Pokhachevskiy Dr.Sc. (Med.), Associate Professor, Department of Physical Training and Sports, The Academy of the FPS of Russia
E-mail: sport_med@list.ru
Yu.M. Reksha Ph.D. (Ped.), Associate Professor, Department of Physical Training and Sports, The Academy of the FPS (Ryazan, Russia)
E-mail: sport_med@list.ru
F.R. Gadzhimuradov Senior Lecturer, Department of Physical Training and Sports, The Academy of the FPS of Russia (Ryazan, Russia)
E-mail: sport_med@list.ru
A.E. Umrukhin Dr.Sc. (Med.), Head of the Department of Normal Physiology, Sechenov’s First Moscow State Medical University
E-mail: alum1@yandex.ru
M.M. Lapkin D.Sc. (Med.), Professor, Head of the Department of Normal Physiology with a Course in Psychophysiology, Ryazan State Medical University
E-mail: sport_med@list.ru
V.A. Pokhachevskiy Student, Lomonosov Moscow State University
E-mail: sport_med@list.ru


Individual level of physical load tolerance may be characterized by the pattern of heart rate frequency variability. Mathematical modeling of heart rate frequency pattern allows detecting key characteristics of variability, measurements of their range and find-ing their relationships with other adaptive reactions of the body.
The goal of this study is to determine capabilities of the mathematical modeling of heart rate frequency variability and to discover mathematical prognostic markers of physical load tolerance.
The study was performed on 68 healthy participants less than 23 years age. Time sequences of heart rate were registered during maximal veloergometer load according to individualized RAMP protocol. We analyzed relationships between heart rate frequency patterns at different time pointsof physical load in individuals with different level of physical load tolerance with spearman factors in linear and hyperbolic models of heart rate frequency patterns.
We found high variability of the individual level of physical load tolerance. Maximal values of heart rate differed for 29% among individuals; physical load tolerance differed for 6 times. Our results show that maximal physical working capacity is determined by a high chronotropic reserves. Chronotropic reserves are limited mainly by heart rate values of the first step. Obtained regularity required detailed analysis of early adaptive period of heart rate sequence.
Early adaptive period of heart rate sequence is characterized by essential variability of heart rate frequency. Under these conditions rate of heart frequency modification may differ also in its direction to tenth power. At second minute of physical load is found most intensive decrease in heart rate acceleration and at third minute is observed stabilization of frequency of heart rate.
We propose that characteristics of acceleration of heart rate during the first minute of physical load, as well as decrease at the second minute and stabilization at the third minute are determined by aerobic-anaerobic sustaining power.
Variability of heart rate frequency at early adaptive period of physical load reflects all characteristics of the whole physical load period. Variability of heart rate frequency at early adaptive period of physical load is determined by an individual level of physical load tolerance. Factors of heart rate models may reflect its variability and its relationships with other adaptive mechanisms. Critical time points of heart rate changes in early adaptive period of physical load are the first 1-2 minutes of maximal variability and stabilization at 3 minute. The stabilization period reflects at best the individual level of physical load tolerance. Factors of heart rate models reflect individual level of physical tolerance even better than values of mean and maximal heart rate measured during the whole physical load period.

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