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Method of the evaluation of electromagnetic compatibility of the transmit spacecraft antenna and onboard equipment on outside surface of equipment bay

Keywords:

V.E. Kosenko – Dr. Sc. (Eng.), Professor, First Deputy General Director – First Deputy General Designer, JSC Academician M.F. Reshetnev «ISS» (Zheleznogorsk)
E-mail: kosenko@iss-reshetnev.ru
S.G. Kochura – Ph. D. (Eng.), Deputy General Designer, JSC Academician M.F. Reshetnev «ISS» (Zheleznogorsk)
E-mail: kochura@iss-reshetnev.ru
I.A. Maksimov – Dr. Sc. (Eng.), Head of Department, JSC Academician M.F. Reshetnev «ISS» (Zheleznogorsk)
E-mail: mia@iss-reshetnev.ru
A.V. Pervukhin – Head of Sector, JSC Academician M.F. Reshetnev «ISS» (Zheleznogorsk)
E-mail: pervukhin@iss-reshetnev.ru


The provision of electromagnetic compatibility is an integral part of the process of creating a spacecraft and covers all stages, from conceptual design to flight tests in orbit. The methodology for ensuring electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) includes the specification of requirements, the conduct of analytical assessments and experimental testing.
Radio interference, which determine the electromagnetic environment on board spacecraft, are divided according to the their origin, the method of transmission from one equipment to another and the mechanisms of impact. Three classes of interference are distinguished, through which the equipment interacts in the spacecraft: conductive, radiated except antennas, radiated through antennas. For each class of interference, its nomenclature of requirements set at the equipment level is established, compliance with which will ensure electromagnetic compatibility of the spacecraft. One of the above-mentioned classes of disturbances has recently acquired a particular urgency – this is the effect on equipment of radiated interference. The reasons for this are as follows:
1) an increase in the capacity of spacecraft leads to an expansion of the quantitative composition of radio transmitters of spacecraft. The number of channels of transmitting equipment is increasing, their power, multi-range, and, consequently, the number of transmitting antennas in the spacecraft is significantly increased;
2) the evolution of equipment aimed at optimizing its mass and size and functional characteristics can lead to an increase in its sus-ceptibility to external fields.
In this article we consider the methods of calculating the electric field strength on the outer surface of the equipment bay of the spacecraft from the radiation of the transmitting antennas of the spacecraft realized in the JSC «ISS». Within the framework of the article:
the main parameters for calculating the field strength from the transmitting antennas of the spacecraft at the locations of the equipment on the outer surface of the equipment bay have been determined, and recommendations have been formulated for their use in calculations;
an analytical method for calculating the field strength is considered, conditions for the applicability of this method are indicated, and the results of its verification are indicated. The peculiarity of this method is its pessimistic results with respect to real values of the field strength. Thus, if the results of the calculation by the analytical method satisfy the condition of ensuring the EMC of the spacecraft (a stock of 6 dB between the level of impact and the level of susceptibility), then no additional estimates are required. Otherwise, it is necessary to carry out the refined evaluation by other methods;
considered the option of using modeling software. It is proposed to use GRASP software as the most satisfactory task for performing EMC analysis of spacecraft, especially in the early stages of design. Additional software was developed for adapting GRASP software to the task of analyzing EMC of spacecraft;
a method for the experimental determination of the field strength from the transmitting antennas of the recurrent transmitters of the spacecraft is proposed;
a method of verification of computational techniques in the RF-test stage of the spacecraft is proposed and some results are shown.
Application of the approach presented in this article to the analysis of radiated interference will allow to provide EMC of the spacecraft.

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