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Saccadic eyes movements in patients with Parkinson's disease untreated

Keywords:

N.A. Ryabchikova – Dr.Sc. (Biol.), Senior Research Scientist, Department of the Higher Nervous Activity, Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University
E-mail: nat@guesstest.ru
E.V. Damyanovich – Ph.D. (Med.), Senior Research Scientist, Laboratory of Neurocybernetic, Scientific center of neurology (Moscow)
E-mail: damjanov@iitp.ru
L.A. Chigaleychik – Ph.D. (Med.), Senior Research Scientist, Laboratory of Neurocybernetic, Scientific center of neurology (Moscow)
E-mail: shkolapd@rambler.ru
B.Kh. Baziyan – Sc.D. (Biol.), Head of the Laboratory Neurocybernetic, Scientific center of neurology (Moscow)
E-mail: baz123@yandex.ru


Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a slowly grow progressively neurodegenerative worse of the nervous system. It manifests tremor, slowing, hyperkinesia muscular stiffness, postural instability. In most cases, patients with PD have violations of cognitive functions, which closely linked with saccadic eye movements. Numerous studies have shown that cognitive processes (attention, memory, thinking) accompanied by saccadic eye movements (rapid, abrupt eye movements, by means of which the fixation of the visual stimulus on the fovea), Moreover, the cognitive processes are often complicated without those movements. Functional and anatomical overlapping of brain structures (frontal and parietal cortex areas, basal ganglia) provides, on the one hand, the process of planning, programming and decision-making, on the other – the control of saccades generation [5]. The process of predicting the appearance of the events is one of the cognitive brain functions underlying of the human intellectual activity. Early, we assumed the saccades are needed to "glue" the "cognitive fragments" into a single idea, leading to a decision-making, to receive, process and store information in the memory during the interval between saccades [4]. Parallel impaired of motor and cognitive functions in Parkinson's disease is found to be changed. The oculomotor system is highly sensitive to functional brain changes and therefore the saccadic movement’s violation can be observed in the early Parkinson's disease stages. In view of above, the aim of the present study is to investigate the possible parallel changes in the cognitive and oculomotor systems in the early stages of Parkinson's disease [1,2].

References:
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  5. Baziyan B.Kh., Chigaleichik L.A., Teslenko E.L., Damjanovich E.V., Shvetsov A.Yu., Ivanova E.A., Ivanova-Smolenskaya I.A., Illariushkin S.N. Disorders of arbitrary hand-eye movements of patients with early stages of Parkinson's disease // Neurology and Neurosurgery in Belarus. 2011. V. 10. № 2. P. 65–81.
  6. Ryabchikova N.A. Baziyan B.Kh., Polyansky V.B., Pletnev O.A. the Role of saccadic eye movements in cognitive processes // Bull. Exp. Biol. and Honey. M.: 2009. V. 147. № 1. P. 11–14.
  7. Moskalenko Y.E., Ryabchikova N.A., Halvorson W., Vardy T.C. Changes of Circulatory – Metabolic Indices and Skull Biomechanics with Brain Activity During Aging // Journal of Integrative Neuroscience. Transdisciplinary Journal, Imperial College Press. 2011. V. 10. № 2. P. 131–160. 

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