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Frequency-scanning monopulse array antenna of enroute radar system. Part 1. Block diagram, evaluation of parameters and simulation


V. S. Efremov – C.Sc. (Eng.), Deputy General Director, JSC «Research and Production Corporation «Lianozovo Electromechanical Plant» (Moscow). E-mail: V. I. Vinnikov – Head of Laboratory, JSC «Research and Production Corporation «Lianozovo Electromechanical Plant» (Moscow). Е-mail: A. V. Suchkov – Leading Engineer, JSC «Research and Production Corporation «Lianozovo Electromechanical Plant» (Moscow). Е-mail:

This article considers the development features of frequency-scanning monopulse antenna array for enroute radar system. The proposed antenna is implemented on the basis of linear waveguide-slot radiators and waveguide beamforming network (BFN), which generate sum and difference radiation patterns in the vertical plane. To date a number of radars with single-channel frequency-scanning waveguide-slot antenna arrays were created [3], [4]. They have mechanical rotation in azimuth plane and frequency-controlled beam position in elevation plane to determine three coordinates of air objects. However, toughening of requirements to the height measurement root-mean-square error value excludes the possibility of previously developed antennas complete borrowing to use them in composition of new radar modifications. The reason for this is that their single-channel construction, that provides frequency scan multi-beam directional pattern formation in the vertical plane, allows to measure altitude by interpolation of elevation angles with a simultaneous comparison of the echo signal amplitudes received by independent channels of adjacent beams. A disadvantage of this method in radars with frequency scanning is that the possibility of increasing the altitude measurement accuracy is limited due to presence of decorrelation of compared echo signals in adjacent beams, which are formed at spaced frequencies. Also it should be noted, that the side lobe levels of the radiation pattern in frequency scanning plane (about 20 dB, as a rule), which is provided by a BFN is currently insufficient to ensure the requirements of noise immunity. To solve the denoted problems, the fundamental processing of frequency scanning power distribution system were carried out (fig. 1, 4), which allowed to realize the series sum-difference BFN and, accordingly, the monopulse method of altitude measurement in each beam at a fixed frequency of the echo signal. The main result of this study consists in possibility of practical realization of the monopulse frequency-scanning antenna design with high quality electromagnetic and operational characteristics (tab. 1, fig. 6). All declared technical characteristics have been confirmed by numerical simulation results. We also preserve all the main advantages of previous developed technical solutions for single-channel antennas in part of approaches to the implementation of the linear waveguide-slot radiators and the high-precision production technology of slow-wave waveguide system, which ensure technical characteristics repeatability in mass production.


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