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The use of metamaterial high impedance surface for a microstrip antenna coupling control

Keywords:

A.S. Kukharenko – Ph. D. (Eng.), Senior Research Scientist, JSC «Russian Space Systems» (Moscow). E-mail: alexk.05@mail.ru


In the present time antennas should meat high and sometimes contradiction requirements. For example, antennas for satellite navigation systems should provide a wide radiation pattern in top hemisphere and mitigation of multipath signals in bottom one. To meet such requirements metamatirial-based frequency-selective surfaces are more and more often used in the construction of antenna modules. But the use of such structures as antenna element ground planes forces their decoupling with transmitting lines. This work presents an analysis of the influence of the ground plane, formed from mushroom-type metamaterial, on the microstrip an-tenna element characteristics. A mathematical model, which was used for investigation of dependence of the antenna element input impedance on the frequency-selective structure, on which it is mounted, surface impedance is described. Also an evaluation of de-pendence of the mushroom-type metamaterial based ground plane surface impedance on the structure resonant elements self induc-tance and capacitance is provided. Basing the evaluation and the described mathematical model a calculation of voltage wave standing ratio (VSWR) of an antenna element, installed on such a ground plane with different values of resonant elements self capacitance, which clearly shows the possibility of antenna element coupling readjustment with the help of ground plane parameters tuning, is made. A special construction of a mushroom-type metamaterial based ground plane, which construction contains variable capacitance elements and allows the tuning of its surface impedance with the help of direct control voltage, supplied to variable capacitance elements, is presented. The provided measurements of antenna element VSWR, which is installed in the described ground plane center, and the band gap of metamaterial, which forms the ground plane, clearly shows the possibility of microstrip antenna element input impedance tuning with the help of metamaterial resonant elements self capacitance control. Thus, a possibility of electronically tunable antenna elements creation with the help of implementing in to their construction mushroom-type metamaterial based ground planes is theoretically prescribed and practically proved.
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