Publishing house Radiotekhnika

"Publishing house Radiotekhnika":
scientific and technical literature.
Books and journals of publishing houses: IPRZHR, RS-PRESS, SCIENCE-PRESS

Тел.: +7 (495) 625-9241


Data, their standards, formats and models required to support search and rescue operations


N.A. Skvortsov – Research Scientist, Institute of Informatics Problems of FRC CSC» RAS (Moscow). E-mail:

Search and rescue operation success, planning and scope of operation are dependent on responsive analysis of wide range of data directly related to the incident or characterizing environment of the incident. Data on planned and actual routes can restrict area of search and increase efficiency of search. Planning for most effective coverage of search area can be based on chart and weather data. Possible incidents can be detected using weather conditions in search area, radiolocation data, distress signals and others. Such data are mainly structured, stored in databases in certain structures or extracted from different sources conforming certain standards. To analyze data for support of search and rescue operations it is required to integrate a variety of data sources. The article considers formats, standards and schemata representing structured data to be analyzed. Examples of works that show directions of structured data analysis for search and rescue are considered. International agreements in the field of security, search and rescue, supported by the Russian Federation are analyzed for required data representations, such as navigational warnings NAVAREA and message formats in IAMSAR. Data formats which are related to cartography and mainly used in the marine field include bitmap formats, for instance MrSID and ECW, and digital chart formats S 57, SXF, ArcMarine, GPX, OSM and others. Data formats associated with aviation are AIRINC-424, AICM, ASTERIX. Meteorological data formats considers, such as GRIB and METAR. Federal state information analyzed for useful database structures.


  1. Aronica S., et al. An agent-based system for maritime search and rescue operations // Proceedings of 11° Workshop nazionale «Dagli Oggetti agli Agenti». WOA 2010. CEURWorkshopProceedings. 2010. V. 621. paper 21.
  2. SARGIS: A GIS-based decision-making support system for maritime search and rescue // The International Conference on E‑Business and E‑Government. ICEE 2010. 7−9 May 2010. Guangzhou. ChinaDOI: 10.1109/ICEE.2010.398.
  3. Feo E., Gambardella L., Caro Di G.A. GIS-based mission support system for wilderness search and rescue with heterogeneous agents // The 2nd IROS Workshop on Robots and Sensors integration in future rescue information system (ROSIN). 2012.
  4. SOLAS-74 (SOLAS). Konsolidirovannyjj tekst s popravkami 2008. [EHlektronnyjj resurs]. URL: (data obrashhenija: 14.12.2015).
  5. Navigacionnye preduprezhdenija. Ezhenedelnyjj bjulleten. [EHlektronnyjj resurs]. MORF. 2015. URL: hydrographic/bulletin.htm.
  6. ICAODoc 9731. Rukovodstvo po Mezhdunar. aviacionnomu i morskomu poisku i spasaniju (MAMPS). Tom II. Koordinacija operacijj. London: ICAO. 2008. ISBN 978-92-9231-426-2.
  7. LizardTech, Creator of MrSID Compression Technology. 2015. URL:
  8. Hexagon Geospatial. 2015. URL:
  9. IHO Transfer Standard for Digital Hydrographic Data IHO. 2000. URL:‑57Ed3.1/31Main.pdf.
  10. Vektornyjj format SXF. Struktura dannykh v dvoichnom vide. Redakcija 4.0. KB «Panorama». 2015. URL: doc/sxf4bin.pdf.
  11. Arc Marine: the ArcGIS Marine Data Model. URL:
  12. GPX: the GPS eXchange Format. [EHlektronnyjj resurs]. URL:
  13. Elements. OpenStreetMap Wiki. [EHlektronnyjjresurs]. URL: wiki/Elements.
  14. ARINC 424-15 Navigation System Data Base Standard. AeronauticalRadio. Inc., 2000. 361 p.
  15. AICM Manual. Edition 4.5. European Organisation for the Safety of Air Navigation. 2007. 86 p.
  16. Rukovodstvo po aviacionnomu nabljudeniju. Doc 9924. AN/474. ICAO. 2010. 320 c.
  17. Guide to WMO Binary Code Form GRIB 1. TechnicalReport№ 17. ZHeneva: Vsemirnaja meteorologicheskaja organizacija. 1994. [EHlektronnyjj resurs]. URL:
  18. Doc 9377 AN/915. Manual on Coordination between Air Traffic Services. AeronauticalInformationServicesandAeronauticalMeteorologicalServices. 2010.
  19. VMO-№ 306. Mezhdunar. aviacionnye meteorologicheskie kody. Nastavlenija po kodam. T. 1.1. VMO. 2004.
  20. Reestr gosudarstvennykh informacionnykh sistem [EHlektronnyjj resurs]. Roskomnadzor. 2015. URL:


© Издательство «РАДИОТЕХНИКА», 2004-2017            Тел.: (495) 625-9241                   Designed by [SWAP]Studio