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Nomenclature modernization issues and examples of areas concepts development based on SNOMED CT


E.S. Pashkina - Ph.D. (Med.), Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation (Moscow). E-mail: T.V. Zarubina - Dr.Sc. (Med.), Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation; Head of Department of Medical Cybernetics and Informatics, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University (Moscow). E-mail:

In previous articles were submitted reviews of foreign literature, which describe the history of the development of systema-tized nomenclature of Medical Terms (SNOMED CT), subtypes of hierarchical structure, the concepts and relationships SNOMED CT, compliance SNOMED CT to ontological standards, comparison with other medical classifications, analyzed the description of disorders of consciousness and complaints in SNOMED CT. The purpose of this article is continuation of the study of the nomenclature SNOMED CT. The paper presents examples of the development of areas of concepts based on SNOMED CT, presentation of various clinical data in the nomenclature, update nomenclature SNOMED CT. Due to the fact that SNOMED CT is reviewed every six months, the organizations using this nomenclature, feel the need to provide synchronization of their systems to these changes. On the one hand - the evolution of the global information content ontology more consistent versions, on the other – the question arises: how suitable modernization, when each new version is released, since the transition to the new version for some kinds of applications is a very time consuming process [9]. Possibilities of using SNOMED CT in electronic medical documentation of clinical, diagnostic and laboratory offices in different clinical information systems are checked [6, 7, 18]. It is important to support the development of terminology, concepts expansion of areas for different departments, for clinicians and researchers. The application of terminological standards will allow to get over incompatibility of medical information systems at semantic level and improve software package integration.


  1. Pashkina E.S., Zarubina T.V. SNOMED CT i problemy terminologicheskikh sistem // Vrach i informacionnye tekhnologii. 2013. № 1. S. 54–62.
  2. Pashkina E.S. Analiz opisanija zhalob v sistematizirovannojj nomenklature medicinskikh terminov (SNOMED CT) // Informacionno-izmeritelnye i upravljajushhie sistemy. 2013. T. 11. № 10. S. 61–65.
  3. Pashkina E.S., Zarubina T.V. Problemy kodirovanija ponjatijj, polnoty opisanija, nalichija nesootvetstvijj v SNOMED CT (obzor literatury) // Informacionno-izmeritelnye i upravljajushhie sistemy. 2014. T. 12. № 10. S. 44–49.
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  5. Abdoune H., Merabti T., Darmoni S.J., Joubert M. Assisting the translation of the CORE subset of SNOMED CT into French // Stud Health Technol Inform.2011. №169. R. 819–23. URL: obrashhenija: 14.03.2013).
  6. Zuccon G, Wagholikar AS, Nguyen AN, Butt L, Chu K, Martin S, Greenslade J. Automatic Classification of Free-Text Radiology Reports to Identify Limb Fractures using Machine Learning and the SNOMED CT Ontology // AMIA Summits Transl Sci Proc. 2013. R. 300–304. URL: obrashhenija: 15.12.2013).
  7. Batool R., Khattak A.M., Kim T.S., Lee S. Automatic extraction and mapping of discharge summary\'s concepts into SNOMED CT // Conf Proc IEEE Eng. Med. Biol. Soc. 2013. R. 4195–8. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2013.6610470. URL: pubmed/24110657 (Data obrashhenija: 15.12.2013).
  8. Bakhshi-Raiez F., Cornet R., de Keizer N.F. Cross-mapping APACHE IV \"reasons for intensive care admission\" classification to SNOMED CT // Stud. Health. Technol. Inform. 2008. V. 136. R. 779–784. URL: pubmed/18487826 (Data obrashhenija: 15.11.2012).
  9. Ceusters W. SNOMED CT\'s RF2: Is the future bright? // Stud. Health. Technol. Inform. 2011. V. 169. R. 829–33. URL: (Data obrashhenija: 09.04.2014).
  10. Ceusters W. SNOMED CT revisions and coded data repositories: when to upgrade? // AMIA Annu. Symp. Proc. 2011. R. 197–206. URL: (Data obrashhenija: 22.01.2013).
  11. Wei D., Wang Y., Perl Y., Xu J., Halper M., Spackman K.A. Complexity measures to track the evolution of a SNOMED hierarchy // AMIA Annu. Symp. Proc. 2008. P.778–782. URL: obrashhenija: 10.01.2013).
  12. Bakhshi-Raiez F., Ahmadian L., Cornet R., de Jonge E., de Keizer N.F. Construction of an interface terminology on SNOMED CT. Generic approach and its application in intensive care // Methods Inf. Med. 2010. V. 49. №4. R. 349–359. URL: (Data ispolzovanija:  14.03.2013).
  13. He Z.,Geller J.,Chen Y. A comparative analysis of the density of the SNOMED CT conceptual content for semantic harmonization // Artif. Intell. Med. 2015. V. 64. №1. R. 29–40. URL: (Data obrashhenija: 15.08.2015).
  14. Kim T.Y.,Hardiker N.,Coenen A. Inter-terminology mapping of nursing problems // J. Biomed. Inform. 2014. V. 49. R. 213–220. URL: (Data obrashhenija: 15.08.2015).
  15. Perez-de-Viñaspre O., Oronoz M. SNOMED CT in a language isolate: an algorithm for a semiautomatic translation // BMC Med. Inform. Decis. Mak. 2015.15(Suppl 2). S5. URL: (Data obrashhenija: 15.08.2015).
  16. SNOMED CT. Sluzhba poiska i identifikacii konceptov SNOMED CT. URL: obrashhenija: 07.05.2015).
  17. SNOMED CT Starter Guide, 2014. URL:­rent-en-US_INT_20140222.pdf (Data obrashhenija: 07.05.2014).
  18. De Silva T.S., MacDonald D., Paterson G., Sikdar K.C, Cochrane B. Systematized nomenclature of medicine clinical terms (SNOMED CT) to represent computed tomography procedures // Comput. Methods. Programs. Biomed. 2011. V. 101. №3. R. 324–329. doi: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2011.01.002. URL: (Data obrashhenija: 27.03.2014).
  19. Warren J., Wilson R.Representing Cardiovascular Concepts in an Electronic Health Record Using SNOMED CT® // AMIA Annu. Symp. Proc. 2006. 1135. URL: obrashhenija: 07.04.3013).


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