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Direction of arrival estimation algorithms

Keywords:

Korobkov M.A. - Post-gradient Student, Ryazan State Engineering University, Research Engineer, PC Branch «JRSC» - «RI SIE» (Moscow). E-mail: Korobkov.M.A@yandex.ru Petrov A.S. - Dr.Sc. (Eng.), Professor, NIU VShE MIEM, Chief Research Scientist, PC Branch «JRSC» - «RI SIE» (Moscow). E-mail: as-petr@yandex.ru


Determination of the angular position or direction finding sources of radio emission is one of the main tasks of the radio electromagnetic environment monitoring in the air. And so this topic is dedicated to the many task-oriented monographs or large sections of them, as well as thematic reviews and extensive periodicals. The aim of this review is to give an initial idea of the modern, including covariance directional finding algorithms, beginner to work on these problems or just wants to get on her overall performance and also to provide a starting list of literature in this area. In the first section briefly outlines the three main directional finding methods - amplitude, with its amplitude-differential option, phase and covariance with short explanation and historical studies. The second introduced the definition of multiplicative forms of the second and higher orders. In the following five sections describe the basic covariance algorithms, among which the MUSIC, ROOT-MUSIC, ESPRIT realization for the uniform circular antenna array, as well as the rank reduction algorithm RARE. These reductions dash separates Russian and English abbreviations. The functioning of each of them is tested on personal computers, the results of calculations and graphical dependencies. The method of estimating the Cramer-Rao bound determining the limiting resolution described in section 8, where also the results of the simulation. Definition for received signal number IRI present in the broadcast material 9 section. Questions bearing on Iran with the definition of the polarization of the received signals are affected in 10 section. Finally, at 11 section presents the pseudo-spectral function (PSF) algorithms, which by the time of their creation was preceded by the emergence of the basic algorithm MUSIC, given their comparison. Conducted a review of methods suggests that each of them has certain advantages, as well, and its inherent disadvantages. Amplitude is the most advantageous energy potential. Amplitude-difference of its kind, giving the first energy significantly greater in the slope of DF characteristics. Phase method, in turn, yields the energy of the amplitude-difference. However, he has as little bearing error and in contrast to previous methods using a circular antenna array with time to explore all the space on the azimuth angle. And the amplitude and phase method sin that work poorly when in the ether there are multiple emitters. Covariance methods of the second and higher orders allow maximum precision to allow multiple emitters. To implement these methods have to create a complex and time-consuming computationally algorithms. Using amplitude-differential, phase and covariance algorithms with a large ratio of signal power to noise power can achieve angular super resolution and with multiple stock to overcome antenna to techniques known in the Rayleigh limit. The General conclusion that follows from the materials made of the review, is that serious dynamical system inevitably will be a complex hardware-software complex, which should provide different, with advanced, technical, algorithmic, and software.
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