A.V. Arefyeva – Ph.D. (Biol.), Associate Professor, Department of «Medical and biological discipline and safety life», Tyumen State University. E-mail: email@example.com
N.M. Fateeva – Dr. Sc. (Biol.), Professor, Department of «Medical and biological discipline and safety life», Tyumen State University. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The level of human development is determined by the level of development of his abilities. The school determines not only intellectual, but also personal, mental development of the child.
It creates conditions for improving his cognitive skills: attention, imagination, thinking, and memory. Memory is the basis of training and education, acquisition of knowledge, personal experience, and skills. Memory is developing intensively at school age. During this period, the memorization and reproduction become more arbitrary and active. Learning at school is a sensitive period and at the same time a comprehensive system of memory training. In recent years, the Russian school is undergoing intense transformations. They are connected with the subject material and forms of knowledge`s control. This is reflected in the memory of pupils.
We examined 69 pupils 12-13 years old, including 42 girls and 27 boys. The indicators of short-term and long-term visual, aural, and picturesque memory were defined by standard methods. The analysis of the results showed that the memory of pupils in the 7th grade higher than grade 6. Moreover, children were dominated by short-term and long-term picturesque memory. In this age period (12-13 years), aural memory dominates the visual. These indicators, in general, correspond to the literature data. But for 12-13 years-old pupils values of memory are low.
The short-term visual memory among 7 grade-pupils – 5.2. The short-term of aural memory is 5.8. This is significantly lower than typical for this age group. The indicator of short-term picturesque memory is 62% of reproduced pictures. There was an opposite trend for long-term memory. The pupils of grade 7 have higher rates of long-term picturesque memory. Pupils of grade 6 accurately reproduce the words and numbers after listening. Girls are leading in short-term opportunities picturesque (60%), aural and visual memory compared to boys. However, boys are better than girls in long-term aural and visual memory for numbers.
In conclusion, we found that pupils 12-13 years old have low rates of short-term visual and auralmemory. We did not found significant gender differences.
P.P. Pamjat i myshlenie. SPb.: Piter.
2001. 228 s.