Radiotekhnika
Publishing house Radiotekhnika

"Publishing house Radiotekhnika":
scientific and technical literature.
Books and journals of publishing houses: IPRZHR, RS-PRESS, SCIENCE-PRESS


Тел.: +7 (495) 625-9241

 

Photonic A/D converters

Keywords:

R.S. Starikov – Dr.Sc. (Phys.-Math.), Professor, Department of Laser physics, National Research Nuclear University MEPhI. E-mail: rstarikov@mail.ru


Review of works in photonic conversion of electronic analogue signals to electronic digital signals is presented. In section 1 contemporary advances in analog-to-digital conversion briefly shown, systematization and potential of photonic ADC’s are done. In section 2 basic methods of optical sampling, optical quantizing and optical preprocessing of digitized signal are presented. In section 3 main types and variants of realizations of photonic ADC’s is described. In section 4 some practical aspects of development of photonic ADC’s are shown. In section 5 the state of the art and progress in photonic ADC’s is discussed.
References:

 

  1. WaldenR. Performance trends for analog-to-digital converters // IEEE Communic. Magazine. 1999. V. 37. P. 96–101.
  2. WaldenR. Analog-to-digital converter survey and analysis // IEEE J. Sel. Areas Communic. 1999. V. 17. P. 539–550.
  3. WaldenR. Analog-to-digital conversion in the early twenty-first century // The Wiley Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Engineering. John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York. 2008. P. 126–138.
  4. Shoop B. Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion. Springer. New York. 2000.
  5. Shoop B. Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion // The Wiley Encyclopedia of Telecommunications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. New York. 2002. P. 1960–1970.
  6. Dokhikyan R., Evtikhiev N., Karinskii S., Mirovitskii D., Popkov V.Ispolzovanie optoelektronnyh metodov dlya sozdaniya bystrodeystvuyuzschih analogo-tcifrovyh preobrazovateley signalov // Zarubezschnaya radioelektronika. 1983. № 9. P. 22–33 – inRussian [Dokhikjan G., Evtikhiev N., Mirovickijj D., Karinskijj S., Popkov V. Ispolzovanie optoehlektronnykh metodov dlja sozdanija bystrodejjstvujushhikh analogo-cifrovykh preobrazovatelejj signalov // Zarubezhnaja radioehlektronika. 1983. № 9. S. 22–33]
  7. WilliamsonR. Two decades of photonic analog-to-digital converters // CLEO 2004 Tech. Dig. P. 275–276.
  8. Valley G. Photonic analog-to-digital converters // Opt. Expr. 2007. V. 15. P. 1955–1982.
  9. IEEE Std 1241TM - 2010, IEEE Standard for Terminology and Test Methods for Analog-to-Digital Converters
  10. Fujitsu Europe Press Release “Fujitsu launches second generation ultra-fast 65 GSa/s 8-Bit ADC technology for 100 G optical transport” 2010. September 13 [Online], Available: http://www.fujitsu.com/emea/news/pr/fseu-en_20100913-978.html (2010) dataobrashhenija 04.07.2014
  11. Greshishchev Y., Aguirre J., Besson M., Gibbins R., Falt C., Flemke P., Ben-Hamida N., Pollex D., Schvan P., Wang S. A 40 GS/s 6b ADC in 65 nm CMOS // ISSCC 2010 Tech. Dig. 21.7
  12. Chu M., Jacob P., Kim J., LeRoy M., Kraft R., McDonald J. A 40 GS/s time interleaved ADC using SiGe BiCMOS technology // IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits. 2010. V. 45. P. 380–390.
  13. MurmannB. ADC Performance Survey 1997-2014 [Online], Available: http://www.stanford.edu/~murmann/adcsurvey.html (2014) dataobrashhenija 10.10.2014
  14. Valley G., Hurrell J., Sefler G. Photonic analog-to-digital converters: fundamental and practical limits // Proc. SPIE. 2004. V. 5618. P. 96–106.
  15. Valley G. Photonic analog-to-digital converters A tutorial // OFC/NFOEC 2009 Tech. Dig. OMI1.
  16. Khilo A., Spector S., Grein M., Nejadmalayeri A., Holzwarth C., Sander M., Dahlem M., Peng M., Geis M., DiLello N., Yoon J., Motamedi A., Orcutt J., Wang J., Sorace-Agaskar C., Popovic M., Sun J., Zhou G., Byun H., Chen J., Hoyt J., Smith H., Ram R., Perrott M., Lyszczarz T., Ippen E., Kärtner F.Photonic ADC: overcoming the bottleneck of electronic jitter // Opt. Expr. 2012. V. 20. P. 4454–4469.
  17. Siegman A., Kuizenga D. Proposed method for measuring picosecond pulsewidths and pulse shapes in CW mode-locked lasers // IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1970. V. 6. P. 212–215.
  18. Taylor H., Taylor M., Bauer P. Electro-optic analog-to-digital conversion using channel waveguide modulators // Appl. Phys. Lett. 1978. V. 32. P. 559–561.
  19. Donkor E., Hayduk M. All-Optical high speed analog to digital conversion of optically sampled signals // Proc. SPIE. 2000. V. 4042. P. 61–65.
  20. Zeitouny A., Feldser A., Horowitz M. Optical sampling of narrowband microwave signals using pulses generated by electroabsorption modulators // Opt. Commun. 2005. V. 256. P. 248–255.
  21. Kanada T., Franzen D. Optical waveform measurement by optical sampling with mode-locked laser diode // Opt. Lett. 1986. V. 11. P. 4–6.
  22. Nelson B., Doran N. Optical sampling oscilloscope using nonlinear fibre loop mirror // Electron. Lett. 1991. V. 27. P. 204–205.
  23. Andrekson P. Picosecond optical sampling using four-wave mixing in fiber // Electron. Lett. 1991. V. 27. P. 1440–1441.
  24. Berrettini G., Bogoni A., Fresi F., Meloni G., Poti L. Evolution of Optical Sampling, Advances in Lasers and Electro Optics, Nelson Costa and Adolfo Cartaxo (Ed.). 290-314 (InTech, 2010). ISBN: 978-953-307-088-9. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/advances-in-lasers-and-electrooptics/evolution-of-optical-sampling
  25. Wright S., Mason I., Wilson M. High-speed electro-optic analogue-digital conversion // Electron. Lett. 1974. V. 10. P. 508–509.
  26. Taylor H. An electro-optic analog-to-digital converter // Proc. IEEE. 1975. V. 63. P. 1524–1525. (imeetsja russkijj perevod v: M.: Mir. Trudy TIIEHR. 1975. T. 63. № 12. S. 175–176.)
  27. Tsunoda Y., Goodman J. Combined optical AD conversion and page composition for holographic memory applications // Appl. Opt. 1977. V. 16. P. 2607–2609.
  28. Jeong J., Marhic M. All-optical analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversion implemented by a nonlinear fiber interferometer // Opt. Commun. 1992. V. 91. P. 115–122.
  29. Ho P., Wang Q., Liu Q., Liu D., Alfano R. High resolution spectra of cross-phase-modulation for an A/D Converter // Proc. SPIE. 1994. V. 2155. P. 37–40.
  30. Loh L., LoCicero J. Subnanosecond sampling all-optical analog-to-digital converter using symmetric self-electro-optic effect devices // Opt. Eng. 1996. V. 35. P. 457–466.
  31. Hayduk M., Bussjager R., Getbehead M. Photonic analog to digital conversion techniques using semiconductor saturable absorbers // Proc. SPIE. 2000. V. 4042. P. 54–60.
  32. Toughlian E., Zmuda H. A photonic wideband analog to digital converter // IEEE MWP 2000 Tech. Dig. P. 248–250.
  33. Sakata H. Photonic analog-to-digital conversion by use of nonlinear Fabry-Perot resonators // Appl. Opt. 2001. V. 40. P. 240–248.
  34. Brzozowski L., Sargent E. All-Optical Analog-to-Digital Converters, Hardlimiters, and Logic Gates // J. Lightw. Technol. 2001. V. 19. P. 114–119.
  35. Konishi T., Tanimura K., Asano K., Oshita Y., Ichioka Y. All-optical analog-to-digital converter by use of self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique // J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 2002. V. 19. P. 2817–2823.
  36. Oda S., Maruta A., Kitayama K. All-optical quantization scheme based on fiber nonlinearity // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2004. V. 16. P. 587–589.
  37. Oda S., Okamoto S., Maruta A. A novel quantization scheme by slicing supercontinuum spectrum for all-optical analog-to-digital conversion // NLGW 2004 Tech. Dig. TuB3.
  38. Ikeda K., Abdul M., Namiki S., Kitayama K. A novel quantizing and coding for ultrafast all-optical A/D converter using nonlinear fiber-optic switches // ECOC 2004 Tech. Dig. Mo3.5.4. P. 46–47.
  39. Goncharenko I., Esman A., Kuleshov V., Pilipovich V. Optical broadband analog-digital conversion on the base of microring resonator // Opt. Commun. 2006. V. 257. P. 54–61.
  40. Miao B., Chen C., Sharkway A., Shi S., Prather D.W. Two bit optical analog-to-digital converter based on photonic crystals // Opt. Expr. 2006. V. 14. P. 7966–7973.
  41. Yu S., Koo S., Park N. Coded output photonic A/D converter based on photonic crystal slow-light structures // Opt. Expr. 2008. V. 16. P. 13752–13757.
  42. Liu Y., Zhang Q., Li H., Liao J., Tang X., Liu Y. Photonic analog-to-digital converter based on wavelength sampling and quantizing // Proc. IEEE APCC 2009. P. 491–494.
  43. Pant R., Xiong C., Madden S., Davies B., Eggleton B. Investigation of all-optical analog-to-digital quantization using a chalcogenide waveguide: A step towards on-chip analog-to-digital conversion // Opt. Commun. 2010. V. 283. P. 2258–2262.
  44. Wen H., Wang H., Ji Y. All-optical quantization and coding scheme for ultrafast analog-to-digital conversion exploiting polarization switches based on nonlinear polarization rotation in semiconductor optical amplifiers // Opt. Commun. 2012. V. 285. P. 3877–3885.
  45. Pace P., Styer D. High-resolution encoding process for an integrated optical analog-to-digital converter // Opt. Eng. 1994. V. 33. P. 2638–2645.
  46. Bell J., Hamilton M., Leep D., Moran T., Taylor H., Lee Y. Extension of Electronic A/D Converters to Multi-Gigahertz Sampling Rates Using Optical Sampling and Demultiplexing Techniques // Twenty-Third Asilomar Conference on Signals. Systems and Computers. 1989. V. 1. P. 289–293.
  47. Frankel M., Kang J., Esman R. High-performance photonic analogue-digital converter // Electron. Lett. 1997. V. 33. P. 2096‑2097.
  48. Yariv A., Koumans R. Time interleaved optical sampling for ultra-high speed A/D conversion // Electron. Lett. 1998. V.  34. P. 2012‑2013.
  49. Bhushan A., Coppinger F., Jalali B., Wang S., Fetterman H.150 G samples wavelength division sampler with time-stretched output // Electron. Lett. 1998. V. 34. P. 474–475.
  50. Kang J., Frankel M., Esman R. Highly parallel pulsed optoelectronic analog–digital converter // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1998. V. 10. P. 1626–1628.
  51. Johnstone A., Lewis M., Hares J. Optical replication technique for wideband transient waveform digitisation // Proc. SPIE. 1998. V. 3285. P. 209–216.
  52. Caputi W. Stretch: a time-transformation technique // IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst. 1971. V. AES-7. P. 269–278.
  53. Kolner B., Nazarathy M. Temporal imaging with a time lens // Opt. Lett. 1989. V. 14. P. 630–632.
  54. Kolner B. Space-time duality and the theory of temporal imaging // IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1994. V. 30, P. 1951–1963.
  55. Khare R., Shukla P. Temporal Stretching of Laser Pulses, Coherence and Ultrashort Pulse Laser Emission, Dr. F.J. Duarte(Ed.). (InTech, 2010). ISBN: 978-953-307-242-5. P. 206-226. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/coherence-and-ultrashort-pulse-laser-emission/temporal-stretching-of-laserpulses
  56. Auston D.Picosecond optoelectronic switching and gating in silicon // Appl. Phys. Lett. 1975. V. 26. P. 101–103.
  57. Lawton R., Andrews J. Optically strobed sampling oscilloscope // IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 1976. V. 25. P. 56–60.
  58. Low A., Carroll J. 10ps optoelectronic sampling system // Solid-State and Electron Dev. 1978. V. 2. P. 185–190.
  59. Leonberger F., Moulton P. High-speed InP optoelectronic switch // Appl. Phys. Lett. 1979. V. 35. P. 712–714.
  60. Valdmanis J., Mourou G., Gabel C. Picosecond electro-optic sampling system // Appl. Phys. Lett. 1982. V. 41. P. 211–212.
  61. Cox III C., Diadiuk V., Yao I., Leonberger F., Williamson R. InP optoelectronic switches and their high-speed signal-processing applications // Proc. SPIE. 1983. V. 439. P. 164–168.
  62. Weingarten K., Rodwell M., Bloom D. Picosecond optical sampling of GaAs integrated circuits // IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1988. V. 24. P. 198–220.
  63. Whitaker J., Valdmanis J., Frankel M., Gupta S., Chwalek J., Mourou G. External electro-optic integrated circuit probing // Microelectr. Eng. 1990. V. 12. P. 369–379.
  64. Sun C., Wu C., Chang C., McKnight W. A bridge type optoelectronic sample and hold circuit // J. Lightw. Technol. 1991. V. 9. P. 341–346.
  65. Sun C., Chang C., McKnight W. A high-speed, high precision optically controlled sample and hold circuit for analog to digital conversion // Proc. SPIE. 1993. V. 2051. P. 758–767.
  66. Sun C., Chang C., Massey G., Lee T., Yu R., Albares D. High energy and low jitter picosecond optical pulser for sample and hold // Proc. SPIE. 1998. V. 3463. P. 212–218.
  67. Jacobs E., Sobti J., Vella V., Nguyen R., Albares D., Olsen R., Chang C., Sun C., Choe M., Beccue S., Yu R., van der Wagt J. Optically clocked track-and-hold for high-speed high-resolution analog-to-digital conversion // IEEE MWP’2004 Tech. Dig. 2004. P. 190–192.
  68. Miller D. Photonic analog to digital converter using ultrafast photoconductors // LEOS Annual Meeting 2001 Tech. Dig. 2001. V. 1. Tu02. P. 251–252.
  69. Urata R., Takahashi R., Sabnis V., Miller D., Harris J. Ultrafast differential sample and hold using low-temperature-grown GaAs MSM for photonic A/D conversion // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2001. V. 13. P. 717–719.
  70. Urata R., Takahashi R., Sabnis V., Miller D., Harris J. Ultrafast optoelectronic sample and hold using low-temperature-grown GaAs MSM // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2003. V. 15, P. 724–726.
  71. Urata R., Nathawad L., Takahashi R., Ma K., Miller D., Wooley B., Harris J. Photonic A/D conversion using low-temperature-grown GaAs MSM switches integrated with Si-CMOS // J. Lightw. Technol. 2003. V. 21. P. 3104–3114.
  72. Nathawad L., Urata R., Wooley B., Miller D. A 40-GHz-bandwidth, 4-bit, time-interleaved A/D converter using photoconductive sampling // IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits. 2003. V. 38. P. 2021–2030.
  73. Ioakeimidi K., Leheny R., Gradinaru S., Ma K., Aldana R., Clendenin J., Harris J., Pease R. A 100 Gs/s photoelectronic A/D converter // CLEO 2003 Tech. Dig. 2003P. CWHl.
  74. Pease R., Ioakeimidi K., Aldana R., Leheny R. Photoelectronic analog-to-digital conversion using miniature electron optics: Basic design considerations // J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 2003. V. 21. P. 2826–2829.
  75. Ioakeimidi K., Leheny R., Gradinaru S., Bolton P., Aldana R., Ma K., Clendenin J., Harris J., Pease R. Photoelectronic analog-to-digital conversion: sampling and quantizing at 100 Gs/s // IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 2005. V. 53. P. 336–342.
  76. Bell J., Hamilton M., Leep D., Taylor H., Lee Y. A/D Conversion of microwave signals using a hybrid optical/electronic technique // Proc. SPIE. 1991. V. 1476. P. 326–329.
  77. Bell J., Hamilton M., Leep D. Optical sampling and demultiplexing applied to A/D conversion // Proc. SPIE. 1991. V. 1562. P. 276‑280.
  78. Shibata T., Yoneyama M. A novel sample and hold system using an optical modulator // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1992. V. 4. P. 588–591.
  79. Ralston D., Metzger A., Kang Y., Asbeck P., Yu P. Highly linear photoreceiver design for application to ultrahigh bandwidth photonic A/D converters // Proc. SPIE. 2000. V. 4112. P. 132–140.
  80. Rabiei P., Levi A. Analysis of Hybrid Optoelectronic WDM ADC // J. Lightw. Technol. 2000. V. 18. 1264–1270.
  81. Twitchell J. Photonic A/D Converters // CLEO 1999 Tech. Dig. 1999. CtuNl.
  82. Helkey R.Narrow-band optical A/D converter with suppressed second-order distortion // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1999. V. 11. P. 599–601.
  83. Twichell J., Helkey R. Phase-encoded optical sampling for analog-to-digital converters // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2000. V. 12. P. 1237–1239.
  84. Juodawlkis P., Twichell J., Betts G., Hargreaves J., Younger R., Wasserman J., O’Donnell F., Ray K., Williamson R. Optically sampled analog-to-digital converters // IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 2001. V. 49. P. 1840–1853.
  85. Twichell J., Wasserman J., Juodawlkis P., Betts G., Williamson R. High-linearity 208-MS/s photonic analog-to-digital converter using 1-to–4 optical time-division demultiplexers // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2001. V. 13. P. 714–716.
  86. Williamson R., Juodawlkis P., Wasserman J., Betts G., Twichell J. Effects of crosstalk in demultiplexers for photonic analog-to-digital converters // J. Lightw. Technol. 2001. V. 19. P. 230–236.
  87. Joudawlkis P., Hargreaves J., Younger R., Titi G., Twichell J. Optical down-sampling of wideband microwave signals // J. Lightw. Technol. 2003. V. 21. P. 3116–3124.
  88. Clark T., Matthews P., Currie M. Real-time photonic analog-digital converter based on discrete wavelength-time mapping // IEEE MWP’99 Tech. Dig. 1999. F-9.4. P. 231–234.
  89. Kang J., Esman R. Demonstration of time interweaved photonic four-channel WDM sampler for hybrid analogue-digital converter // Electron. Lett. 1999. V. 35. P. 60–61.
  90. Clark T., Kang J., Esman R. “Performance of a time- and wavelength-interleaved photonic sampler for analog-digital conversion” // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1999. V. 11. P. 1168–1170.
  91. Clark T., Dennis M. Toward a 100-GSample/s Photonic A-D Converter // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2001. V. 13. P. 236–238.
  92. Clark T., Currie M., Matthews P. Digitally linearized wide-band photonic link // J. Lightw. Technol. 2001. V. 19. P. 172–179.
  93. Bhushan A., Coppinger F., Yegnanarayanan S., Jalali B. Non-dispersive wavelength-division sampling // Opt. Lett. 1999 V. 24. P. 738–740.
  94. Coppinger F., Bhushan A., Jalali B. 12 Gsample/s wavelength division sampling analog-to-digital converter // Electron. Lett. 2000. V. 36. P. 316–318.
  95. Zhang H., Yao M., Peng C., Gao Y. Detection and A/D conversion for 10GHz microwave signals using optical sampling // Proc. SPIE. 2002. V. 4927. P. 309–311.
  96. Fok M., Lee K., Shu C. 4 x 2.5 GHz repetitive photonic sampler for high-speed analog-to-digital signal conversion // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2004. V. 16. P. 876–878.
  97. Ng W., Stephens R., Persechini D., Reddy K. Ultra-low jitter modelocking of Er-fiber laser at 10 GHz and its application in photonic sampling for analog-to-digital conversion // Electron. Lett. 2001. V. 37. P. 113–115.
  98. Broekaert T., Ng W., Jensen J., Yap D., Persechini D., Bourgholtzer S., Fields C., Brown-Boegeman Y., Shi B., Walden R. InP-HBT optoelectronic integrated circuits for photonic analog-to-digital conversion // IEEE J. Solid-State Electron. 2001. V. 36. P. 1335‑1342.
  99. Ng W., So Y., Stephens R., Persechini D. Characterization of the jitter in a mode-locked Er-fiber laser and its application in photonic sampling for analog-to-digital conversion at 10 Gsample/s // J. Lightw. Technol. 2004. V. 22. P. 1953–1961.
  100. Ng W., Luh L., Persechini D., Le D., So Y., Mokhtari M., Fields C., Yap D., Jensen J. Ultrahighspeed photonic analog-to-digital conversion technologies // Proc. SPIE. 2004. V. 5435. P. 171–177.
  101. Donkor E., Green J., Hayduk M., Bussjager R. 10 GSPS 10-bits optical analog-to digital converter // Proc. SPIE. 2002. V. 4732. P. 53–58.
  102. Noman M., Donkor E., Hayduk M., Bussjager R. High Speed Multi-Channel Optical Sampling Technique for Analog-to-Digital Converter // Proc. SPIE. 2005. V. 5814. P. 74–78.
  103. Villa C., Kumavor P., Burgess B., Donkor E. Demonstration of a 5.12 GHz Optoelectronics Sampling Circuit for Analog-to-Digital Converters // Proc. SPIE. 2006. V. 6236. 623607.
  104. Villa C., Donkor E., Hayduk M., Bussjager R. 40 GSPS Opto-electronic Polyphase Analog-to-Digital Converter // Proc. SPIE. 2007. V. 6572. 657207.
  105. Villa C., Kumavor P., Donkor E. Demonstration of a Self-Synchronized Polyphase Sampling and Demultiplexing Scheme for Radio-Frequancy Analog Signals // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2008. V. 20. P. 452–454.
  106. Villa C., Kumavor P., Donkor E., Jin G. A 1.28GSPS 12-bits Optoelectronic Analog-to-Digital Converter // Proc. SPIE. 2009. V. 7339. 73390G.
  107. Fu X., Zhang H., Yao M. High-speed Optical Hold Module in Optical Assisted ADC // Proc. SPIE. 2008. V. 7134. 71342J.
  108. Currie M. Hybrid photonic analog-to-digital conversion using superconducting electronics // IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. 2004. V. 14. P. 2047–2052.
  109. Lee K., Shu C., Liu H. 10 Gsamples/s photonic analog-to-digital converter constructed using 10-wavelenght jitter-suppressed sampling pulses from a self-seeded laser diode // CLEO 2001 Tech. Dig. 2001. CMN5. P. 67–68.
  110. Li M., Wu G., Guo P., Li X., Chen J. Analysis and compensation of dispersion-induced bit loss in a photonic A/D converter using time-wavelenght sampling clock // Opt. Expr. 2009. V. 17. P. 17764–17771.
  111. Wu G., Li S., Li X., Chen J. 18 wavelengths 83,9 Gs/s optical sampling clock for photonic A/D converters // Opt. Expr. 2010. V. 18. P. 21162–21168.
  112. Fu X., Zhang H., Peng Y., Yao M. 40-Gbps time- and wavelength-interleaved pulse-train generation in wavelength-demultiplexing analog-to-digital conversion // Opt. Eng. 2009. V. 48. 104302.
  113. Fu X., Zhang H., Peng Y., Yao M. Phase spectrum algorithm for correction of time distortion in a wavelength demultiplexing analog-to-digital converter // Opt. Eng. 2010. V. 49. P. 055003.
  114. Petrillo K., Stroud J., Foster M. An All-Optical Sample-and-Hold Architecture Incorporating Amplitude Jitter Suppression // CLEO 2012 Tech. Dig. 2012. CM2B.7.
  115. Jiang P., Chai Y., White I., Penty R., Heaton J., Kuver A., Clements S., Leburn C., McWilliam A., Lagatsky A., Brown C., Sibbett W. 80 GSPS Photonic analogue to digital conversion system using broadband continuous wave source // CLEO 2005 Tech. Dig. 2005. P. 874–876.
  116. Jiang P., Chai Y., White I., Penty R., Heaton J., Kuver A., Clements S., Leburn C., McWilliam A., Lagatsky A., Brown C., Sibbett W. Photonic analogue to digital conversion system using broadband mode locked laser with 20 GHz bandwidth // Proc. ECOC. 2005. V. 4. P. 795–796.
  117. Kärtner F., Amataya R., Barbastathis G., Byun H., Gan F., Holzwarth C., Hoyt J., Ippen E., Olubuyide O., Orcutt J., Park M., Perrott M., Popovic M., Rakich P., Ram R., Smith H., Geis M., Grein M., Lyszczarz T., Spector S., Yoon J. Silicon electronic photonic integrated circuits for high speed analog to digital conversion // 3rd IEEE Int. Conf. Group IV Photonics. 2006. P. 203–205.
  118. Kärtner F., Akiyama S., Barbastathis G., Barwicz T., Byun H., Danielson D., Gan F., Grawert F., Holzwarth C., Hoyt J., Ippen E., Kim M., Kimerling L., Liu J., Michel J., Olubuyide O., Orcutt J., Park M., Perrott M., Popovic M., Rakich P., Ram R., Smith H., Watts M. Electronic Photonic Integrated Circuits for High Speed, High Resolution Analog to Digital Conversion // Proc. SPIE. 2006. V. 6125. 612503.
  119. Spector S., Lyszczarz T., Geis M., Lennon D., Yoon J., Grein M., Schulein R., Amataya R., Birge J., Chen J., Byun H., Gan F., Holzwarth C., Hoyt J., Ippen E., Kärtner F., Khilo A., Olubuyide O., Orcutt J., Park M., Perrott M., Popovic M., Barwicz T., Dahlem M., Ram R., Smith H. Integrated Optical Components in Silicon for High Speed Analog-to-Digital Conversion // Proc. SPIE. 2007. V. 6477. 64770O.
  120. Kärtner F., Amatya R., Araghchini M., Birge J., Byun H., Chen J., Dahlem M., DiLello N., Gan F., Holzwarth C., Hoyt J., Ippen E., Khilo A., Kim J., Kim M., Motamedi A., Orcutt J., Park M., Perrott M., Popovic M., Ram R., Smith H., Zhou G. Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion with Electronic-Photonic Integrated Circuits // Proc. SPIE. 2008. V. 6898. 689806.
  121. Kim J., Park M., Perrott M., Kärtner F. Photonic subsampling analog-to-digital conversion of microwave signals at 40-GHz with higher than 7-ENOB resolution // Opt. Expr. 2008. V. 16. P. 16509–16515.
  122. Holzwarth C., Amatya R., Araghchini M., Birge J., Byun H., Chen J., Dahlem M., DiLello N., Gan F., Hoyt J., Ippen E., Kärtner F., Khilo A., Kim J., Kim M., Motamedi A., Orcutt J., Park M., Perrott M., Popovic M., Ram R., Smith H., Zhoub G., Spector S., Lyszczarz T., Geis M., Lennon D., Yoon J., Grein M., Schulein R., Frolov S., Hanjani A., Shmulovich J. High Speed Analog-to-Digital Conversion with Silicon Photonics // Proc. SPIE. 2009. V. 7220. 72200.
  123. Grein M., Spector S., Khilo A., Najadmalayeri A., Sander M., Peng M., Wang J., Sorace C., Geis M., Willis M., Lennon D., Lyszczarz T., Ippen E., Kärtner F.Demonstration of a 10 GHz CMOS-Compatible Integrated Photonic Analog-to-Digital Converter // CLEO 2011 Tech. Dig. 2011. CThI1.
  124. Nejadmalayeri A., Grein M., Khilo A., Wang J., Sander M., Peng M., Sorace C., Ippen E., Kärtner F. A 16-fs aperture-jitter photonic ADC: 7.0 ENOB at 40 GHz // CLEO 2011 Tech. Dig. 2011. CThI6.
  125. Khilo A., Sorace C., Birge J., Kärtner F. Accurate Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion // Proc. XXXth URSI 2011. 2011. P. 1–4.
  126. Kärtner F., Khilo A., Nejadmalayeri A. Progress in Photonic Analog Analog-to to-Digital Conversion // OFC/NFOEC 2013 Tech. Dig. 2013. OTh3D.5.
  127. Wiberg A., Myslivets E., Nissim R., Danicic A., Blessing D., Kuo B., Radic S. Linearized parametric gate for real-time photonic-sampled analog-to-digital conversion // OFC/NFOEC 2011 Tech. Dig. 2011. OThW5.
  128. Wiberg A., Tong Z., Liu L., Ponsetto J., Ataie V., Myslivets E., Alic N., Radic S.Demonstration of 40 GHz Analog-to-Digital Conversion Using Copy-and-Sample All Parametric Processing // OFC/NFOEC 2012 Tech. Dig. 2012. OW3C.2.
  129. Wiberg A., Tong Z., Liu L., Ponsetto J., Ataie V., Myslivets E., Alic N., Radic S.Demonstration of Parallel Polychromatic Sampling based Analog-to-Digital Conversion at 8 GS/s // CLEO 2012 Tech. Dig. 2012. CM2B.5.
  130. Wiberg A., Liu L., Tong Z., Myslivets E., Ataie V., Alic N., Radic S. Cavity-Less Pulse Source Based Optical Sampled ADC // Proc. ECOC. 2012. Mo.2.A.3.
  131. Ataie V., Myslivets E., Wiberg A., Kuo B., Alic N., Radic S. Linearization of copy-and-sample photonics analog to digital converter based on a multidimensional look-up table // OFC/NFOEC 2012 Tech. Dig. 2012. OM2B.6.
  132. Wiberg A., Liu L., Tong Z., Myslivets E., Ataie V., Kuo B., Alic N., Radic S. Photonic preprocessor for analog-to-digital-converter using a cavity-less pulse source // Opt. Exp. 2012. V. 20. P. B419-B427.
  133. Liu L., Tong Z., Wiberg A., Myslivets E., Alic N., Radic S. Full characterization of self-phase-modulation based low-noise, cavity-less pulse source for photonic-assisted analog-to-digital conversion // Opt. Expr. 2012. V. 20. P. B110-B117.
  134. Ataie V., Wiberg A., Alic N., Radic S. Nonlinear cross-talk mitigation in polychromatic parametric sampling gate // Opt. Exp. 2013. V. 21. P. 4145–4154.
  135. Golani O., Mauri L., Pasinato F., Cattaneo C., Consonnni G., Balsamo S., Marom D. A photonic analog-to-digital converter using phase modulation and self-coherent detection with spatial oversampling // Opt. Expr. 2014. V. 22. P. 12273–12282.
  136. Esman D., Wiberg A., Alic N., Radic S. High resolution broadband photonic sampled ADC: 8.0 ENOB at 40 GHz // OFC/OECC/ACOFT 2014 Tech. Dig. 2014. P. 189–191.
  137. Evtikhiev N., Mirovitskii D., Rostovtseva N., Serov Ο. Multilayer holographic functional element in an analog-digital converter // Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 1986. V. 16, P. 1180–1183 [Evtikhiev N., Mirovickijj D., Rostovceva N., Serov O. Mnogoslojjnyjj golograficheskijj funkcionalnyjj ehlement v analogo-cifrovom preobrazovatele // Kvant. EHlektron. 1986. T. 16. C. 1794‑1800].
  138. Hou X., Daryoush A., Rosen W., Burstyn H., Zalud P. Design of an Ultra High-speed All-Optical Analog-to-Digital Converter // Proc. IEEE Radar Conf. 2004. 2004. P. 520–523.
  139. Li Y., Zhang Y. Optical analog-to-digital conversion using acousto-optic theta modulation and table lookup // Appl. Opt. 1991. V. 30. P. 4368–4371.
  140. Johansson M., Löfving B., Hård S., Thylén L., Mokhtari M., Westergren U., Pala C. Study of an ultrafast analog to digital conversion scheme based on diffractive optics // Appl. Opt. 2000. V. 39. P. 2881–2887.
  141. Galt S., Magnusson A., Hård S. Dynamic Demonstration of Diffractive Optic Analog-To-Digital Converter Scheme // Appl. Opt. 2003. V. 42. P. 264–270.
  142. Stigwall J., Galt S., Hard S. Experimental evaluation of an ultra-fast free space optical analog-to-digital conversion scheme using a tunable semiconductor laser // Proc. SPIE. 2004. V. 5466. P. 123–130.
  143. Stigwall J., Galt S. Analysis of the resolution-bandwidth-noise trade-off in wavelength-based photonic analog-to-digital converters // Appl. Opt. 2006. V. 45. P. 4310–4318.
  144. Yang W., Renkoski T., Nunnally W. Overview of an all-optical analog-to-digital converter, focusing of deflected TeraHertz optical pulse and propagation characteristics // Proc. SPIE. 2005. V. 5814. P. 62–73.
  145. Zmuda H., Toughlian E. A high-speed analog-to-digital converter // Proc. SPIE. 2001. V. 4386. P. 29–36.
  146. Zmuda H.Analog-to-digital conversion using high-speed photonic processing // Proc. SPIE. 2001. V. 4490. P. 84–95.
  147. Zmuda H., Toughlian E., Li G., LiKamWa P. A photonic wideband analog-to-digital converter // Proc. IEEE Aerospace Conf. 2001. V. 3. P. 1461–1472.
  148. Zmuda H., Hayduk M., Bussjager R., Toughlian E. Wavelength-based analog-to-digital conversion // Proc. SPIE. 2002. V. 4547. P. 134–145.
  149. Sarantos C., Dagli N. A Photonic Analog-to-Digital Converter Based on an Unbalanced Mach-Zehnder Quantizer // IEEE MWP’2007 Tech. Dig. 2007. P. 58–61.
  150. Sarantos C., Dagli N. A photonic analog-to-digital converter based on an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder quantizer // Opt. Expr. 2010. V. 18. P. 14598–14603.
  151. Kim N., Dagli N. A subranging photonic ADC based on cyclic code // IPC’2012 Tech. Dig. 2012. P. 222–223.
  152. Taylor H. An optical analog-to-digital converter – design and analysis // IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1979. V. 15. P. 210–216.
  153. Takizawa K., Okada M. Analog-to-digital converter: a new type using an electrooptic light modulator // Appl. Opt. 1979. V. 18. P. 3148–3151.
  154. Leonberger F., Woodward C., Spears D. Design and development of a high-speed electrooptic A/D converter // IEEE Trans. Circuits and Syst. 1979. V. 26. P. 1125–1131.
  155. Leonberger F., Woodward C., Becker R. 4-bit 828-megasample/s electro-optic guided-wave analog-to-digital converter // Appl. Phys. Lett. 1982. V. 40. P. 565–568.
  156. Becker R., Leonberger F. 2-bit 1 Gsample/s electrooptic guided-wave analog-to-digital converter // IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1982. V. 18. P. 1411–1413.
  157. Becker R., Woodward C., Leonberger F., Williamson R. Wideband electrooptic guidedwave analog-to-digital converters // Proc. IEEE. 1984. V. 72, P. 802–819. (imeetsja russkijj perevod v:Opticheskaja vychislitelnaja tekhnika. TrudyTIIEHR. 1984. T. 72. №7. M.: Mir 1984).
  158. Yamada S., Minakata M., Noda J. Analog-to-digital conversion experiments using a LiNbO3 balanced bridge modulator // Appl. Phys. Lett. 1981. V. 39. P. 124–126.
  159. King G., Cebulski R. Analogue-to-digital conversion using integrated electro-optic interferometers // Electron. Lett. 1982. V. 18. P. 1099–1100.
  160. Dokhikyan R., Zolotov E., Karinskii S., Maksimov V., Popkov V., Prokhorov A., Sisakyan I., Shcherbakov E. Prototype of an integrated-optics four-digit analog-digital converter // Sov. J. Quantum Electron. V. 12, P. 806–807 (1982) [Dokhikjan R., Zolotov E., Karinskijj S., Maksimov V., Popkov V., Prokhorov A., Sisakjan M., SHHerbakov E.Maket integralno-opticheskogo chetyrjokhrazrjadnogo analogo-cifrovogo preobrazovatelja // Kvant. EHlektron. 1982. T. 12. C. 1272–1273].
  161. EvtikhievN., KarinskiiS., MirovitskiiD., PopkovV.Optoelectronicinterferometricanalog-digitalconverter // Sov. J. QuantumElectron. 1987. V. 17. P. 140–146 [Evtikhiev N., Karinskijj S., Mirovickijj D., Popkov V. Optoehlektronnyjj interferometricheskijj analogo-cifrovojj preobrazovatel // Kvant. EHlektron. 1987. T. 17. C. 233–243].
  162. Chang C., Tsai C. Electro-optic analog-to-digital converter using channel waveguide Fabry-Perot modulator array // Appl. Phys. Lett. 1983. V. 43. P. 22–24.
  163. Walker R., Bennion I., Carter A. Novel GaAs/AlGaAs guided-wave analog/digital converter // Electron. Lett. 1989. V. 25. P. 1443‑1444.
  164. Jalali B., Xie Y. Optical folding-flash analog-to-digital converter with analog encoding // Opt. Lett. 1995. V. 20. P. 1901–1903.
  165. Xu L., Zhang S., Zhou X., Dai J., Yang Y., Liu Y., Liu Y. Electro-optical analog-to-digital converter based on LiNbO3 Mach-Zehnder modulators // ICOCN’2010. 2010. P. 343–346.
  166. Currie M., Clark T., Matthews P. Photonic analog-to-digital conversion by distributed phase modulation // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2000. V. 12. P. 1689–1691.
  167. Currie M.High-speed photonic analog-to-digital conversion using phase modulation // CLEO 2001 Tech. Dig. 2001. P. 68–69.
  168. Currie M. Optical quantization of microwave signals via distributed phase modulation // IEEE J. Lightw. Technol. 2005. V. 23, P. 827–833.
  169. Yakimovich A. Threshold light modulator for analog-to-digital image conversion // Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 1984. V. 14, P. 464‑477 [JAkimovich A. Porogovyjj moduljator sveta dlja analogo-cifrovogo preobrazovanija izobrazhenijj // Kvant. EHlektron. 1984. T. 14. C. 684–688].
  170. Hayasaki Y., Mori M., Nishida N. Optical image transformations for fully parallel optical analog-to-digital conversion // Appl. Opt. 1998. V. 37. P. 3607–3611.
  171. Donkor E., Hayduk M., Bussjager R., Kumavor P. A 2.5 Gb/s flash all-optical analog-to-digital converter // LEOS Annual Meeting 2000 Tech. Dig. 2000. V. 1. P. 204–205.
  172. Donkor E., Kumavor P., Summers S., Hayduk M., Busjager R. A 5 Gigabits/sec all-optical parallel analog-to-digital converter // CLEO 2001 Tech. Dig. 2001. CTuM39. P. 182–183.
  173. Hayduk M., Bussjager R., Getbehead M., Louthain J. Recent advancements in photonic converters // Proc. SPIE. 2000. V. 4112. P. 28–37.
  174. Hayduk M., Bussjager R., Johns S., Gerhardstein C., Wicks G. Development of semiconductor saturable absorbers for use in photonic analog to digital converters // Proc. SPIE. 2001. V. 4386. P. 22–28.
  175. Hayduk M., Bussjager R., Johns S., Gerhardstein C., Wicks G. Contrast ratio enhancement in a saturable absorber based photonic analog to digital converter // Proc. SPIE. 2002. V. 4732. P. 46–52.
  176. Saffari M., Mansouri-Birjandi M. One-Dimensional Photonic Analog-to-Digital Converter, based on Kerr-like Nonlinearity // Proc. 1st ICComE. 2010. P. 152–154.
  177. Ho P., Wang Q., Chen J., Liu Q., Alfano R. Ultrafast optical pulse digitization with unary spectrally encoded cross-phase modulation // Appl. Opt. 1997. V. 36. P. 3425–3429.
  178. Oda S., Maruta A. All-optical analog-to-digital conversion based on 2nd-order soliton splitting in fiber // OSA NLGW Tech. Dig. 2005. ThA1.
  179. Oda S., Maruta A. A novel quantization scheme by slicing supercontinuum spectrum for all-optical analog-to-digital conversion // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2005. V. 17. P. 465–467.
  180. Oda S., Maruta A. Two-Bit All-Optical Analog-to-Digital Conversion by Filtering Broadened and Split Spectrum Induced by Soliton Effect or Self-Phase Modulation in Fiber // IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 2006. V. 12. P. 307–314.
  181. Oda S., Maruta A. Photonic analogue-to-digital conversion using electroabsorption modulator and supercontinuum light // Electron. Lett. 2006. V. 42. P. 1000–1001.
  182. Maruta A., Oda S. Optical Signal Processing Based on All-Optical Analog-to-Digital Conversion // Proc. OPN 2008. 2008. P. 31‑35.
  183. Kitayama K., Ikeda K., Tobioka H., Inoue T., Namiki S. Photonic analog-to-digital conversion // LEOS ST 2005 Tech. Dig. 2005. P. 209–210.
  184. Ikeda K., Abdul J., Namiki S., Kitayama K. Optical quantizing and coding for ultrafast A/D conversion using nonlinear fiber-optic switches based on Sagnac interferometer // Opt. Expr. 2005. V. 13. P. 4296–4302.
  185. Ikeda K., Abdul J., Tobioka H., Inoue T., Namiki S., Kitayama K. Design considerations of all-optical A/D conversion: Nonlinear fiber-optic sagnac-loop interferometer-based optical quantizing and coding // J. Lightw. Technol. 2006. V. 24. P. 2618–2628.
  186. Miyoshi Y., Ikeda K., Tobioka H., Inoue T., Namiki S., Kitayama K. All-Optical Analog-to-Digital Conversion Using Split-and-Delay Technique // J. Lightw. Technol. 2007. V. 25. P. 1339–1347.
  187. Miyoshi Y., Ikeda K., Tobioka H., Inoue T., Namiki S., Kitayama K. Simplification of All-Optical Analog-to-Digital Converter Using Split-and-Delay Technique // IEICE Conf. on Optical Communication System. 2008. OCS 2005–44. P. 51–56.
  188. Miyoshi Y., Takagi S., Nagaeda H., Namiki S., Kitayama K. Multi-period NOLM for ultrafast all-optical A/D converter // IEICE Conf. Photonic Network. 2008. PN 2007–86. P. 69–73.
  189. Miyoshi Y., Takagi S., Nagaeda H., Namiki S., Kitayama K. Toward tera-sample/s 5-bit all-optical analog-to-digital conversion // OFC/NFOEC 2009 Tech. Dig. 2009. OMI4.
  190. Miyoshi Y., Takagi S., Nagaeda H., Namiki S., Kitayama K. Ultrafast all-optical A/D conversion using NOLMs with multi-period transfer functions // LEOS WT 2009 Tech. Dig. 2009. TuC.1.2. P. 215–216.
  191. Miyoshi Y., Takagi S., Namiki S., Kitayama K. Multiperiod PM-NOLM With Dynamic Counter-Propagating Effects Compensation for 5-Bit All-Optical Analog-to-Digital Conversion and Its Performance Evaluations // J. Lightw. Technol. 2010. V. 28. P. 415–422.
  192. Miyoshi Y., Namiki S., Kitayama K. Performance Evaluation of Resolution-Enhanced ADC Using Optical Multiperiod Transfer Functions of NOLMs // IEEE J. Sel. Topics In Quant. Electron. 2012. V. 18. P. 779–784.
  193. Zhang L., Liu Y., Liu Y. A novel optical coding method for all-optical A/D Conversion using nonlinear optical switches based on the Sagnac interferometer // Proc. SPIE. 2007. V. 6839. 683913.
  194. Zhang L., Liu Y., Liu Y. An optical quantizing and coding method for all-optical ADC based on asymmetrical nonlinear optical-loop mirrors // Proc. SPIE. 2008. V. 7136. 713640.
  195. Xu C., Liu X. Photonic analog-to-digital converter using soliton frequency shift and interleaving spectral filters // Opt. Lett. 2003. V. 28. P. 986–988.
  196. Li H., Wu X., Zhang X., Liao J., Tang X., Liu Y., Liu Y. Soliton self-frequency shift and spectral compression in highly nonlinear fibres for resolution improvement of all-optical analogue-to-digital conversion // Electron. Lett. 2009. V. 45. P. 1337–1339.
  197. Liu J., Li H., Tang X., Zhang S., Liu Y. Soliton self-frequency shift and two-stage spectral compression for resolution improvement of all-optical ADC // ACP/IPOC 2013 Tech. Dig. 2013. ATh4D.2.
  198. Esmaeilian-Marnani A., Abas A., Mahdi M., Samsudin K. Ultrafast two-bit all-optical analog-to-digital conversion based on femtosecond soliton sequence sampling // Opt. Eng. 2011. V. 50. 125001.
  199. Zhang Q., Liu Y., Zhang S., Li H., Liu Y. Wavelength Sampling and Quantizing Optical ADC Based on Long-Period Waveguide Grating Filter // Proc. SOPO’2010. 2010. SOPO.2010.5504399.
  200. Nishitani T., Konishi T., Itoh K. Integration of a proposed all-optical analog-to-digital converter using self-frequency shifting in fiber and a pulse-shaping technique // Opt. Rev. 2005. V. 12. P. 237–241.
  201. Nishitani T., Konishi T., Itoh K. All-optical Analog-to-digital Conversion Using Optical Interconnection for Gray Code Coding // Proc. SPIE. 2006. V. 6353. 63530H.
  202. Nishitani T., Konishi T., Itoh K. Optical coding scheme using optical interconnection for high sampling rate and high resolution photonic analog-to-digital conversion // Opt. Expr. 2007. V. 15. P. 15812–15817.
  203. Nishitani T., Konishi T., Itoh K. All-optical M-ary ASK signal demultiplexer based on photonic analog-to-digital conversion // Opt. Expr. 2007. V. 15. P. 17025–17031.
  204. Nishitani T., Konishi T., Itoh K. Resolution Improvement of All-Optical Analog-to-Digital Conversion Employing Self-frequency Shift and Self-Phase-Modulation-Induced Spectral Compression // IEEE J. Sel. Topics in Quant. Electron. 2008. V. 14. P. 724–732.
  205. Konishi T., Goto H., Kato T., Kawanishi K. All Optical Analog-to-Digital Conversion: Principle and Recent progress // Proc. IEEE APCC 2009. 2009. P. 487–490.
  206. Konishi T., Takahashi K., Matsui H., Satoh T., Itoh K. Five-bit parallel operation of optical quantization and coding for photonic analog-to-digital conversion // Opt. Expr. 2011. V. 19. P. 16106–16114.
  207. Konishi T., Takahashi K., Matsui H., Satoh T. Optical Quantization and Coding for 5bit Photonic A/D Conversion // IEEE ICTON’2011 Tech. Dig. 2011. Tu.D1.3.
  208. Takahashi K., Matsui H., Konishi T., Itoh K. 6-bit All-Optical Quantization Using Soliton Self Frequency Shift and Multistage SPM-Based Spectral Compression // OECC 2011 Tech. Dig. 2011. 8D1–3. 814–815.
  209. Satoh T., Takahashi K., Matsui H., Itoh K., Konishi T. 10-GS/s 5-bit Real-Time Optical Quantization for Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2012. V. 24. P. 830–832.
  210. Konishi T., Takahashi K., Matsui H., Satoh T. Optical Quantization for 6 bit Photonic A/D Conversion // IEEE ICTON’2012 Tech. Dig. 2012. Tu.C1.1.
  211. Konishi T., Takahashi K., Matsui H., Satoh T. Photonic Analog-to-Digital conversion with emphasis on parallel-configuration-free characteristics // OSA APC 2013 Tech. Dig. 2013. SP1D.2.
  212. Satoh T., Hasegawa M., Itoh K., Konishi T. Power-saving approach toward 7-bit optical quantization for photonic analog-to-digital conversion // CLEO-PR 2013 Tech. Dig. 2013. TuO1–2.
  213. Satoh T., Hasegawa M., Itoh K., Konishi T. Connectivity Verification Between Optical Sampling and Quantization Techniques for All-Optical Analog-to-Digital Conversion // CLEO-PR 2013 Tech. Dig. 2013. TuO1–4.
  214. Satoh T., Itoh K., Konishi T. 100-GS/s 5-Bit Real-Time Optical Quantization for Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion // IEICE Trans. Electron. 2013. V. E96-C. № 2. P. 223–226.
  215. Prather D., Shi S., Murakowski J., Schneider G., Sharkawy A., Chen C., Miao B., Martin R. Self-collimation in photonic crystal structures: a new paradigm for applications and device development // J. Phys. D. 2007. V. 40. P. 2635–2651.
  216. Sharkway A., Chen C., Miao B., Shi S., Prather D. Development of an Analog-to-Digital Converter Photonic Crystals // Proc. SPIE. 2007. V. 6480. P. 64800H.
  217. Sharkway A., Chen C., Miao B., Shi S., Prather D. Design and analysis of a Chip-Scale Photonic Analog-to-Digital Converter // Proc. SPIE. 2009. V. 7348. 73480T.
  218. Koo S., Yu S., Park N. Numerical Analysis of Photonic ADC based on photonic crystal CROW structures // Proc. COIN 2008. P. 62. [Online], Available: http://stargate.snu.ac.kr/thesis_pdf/inconf_110.pdf - dataobrashhenija 04.07.2014.
  219. Yu S., Koo S., Piao X., Park N. Application of slow-light photonic crystal structures for ultra-high speed all-optical analog-to-digital conversion // Proc. Microoptics Conference. 2009. D1. [Online], Available: http://stargate.snu.ac.kr/thesis_pdf/inconf_119.pdf - dataobrashhenija 04.07.2014.
  220. Yousse B., Moravvej-Farshi M., Granpayeh N. Two bit all-optical analog-to-digital converter based on nonlinear Kerr effect in 2D photonic crystals // Opt. Commun. 2012. V. 285. P. 3228–3233.
  221. Pace P., Walley R., Pieper R., Powers J. 5bit guidedwave SNS transfer characteristics// IET Electron. Lett. 1995. V. 31. P. 1799‑1800.
  222. Pace P., Schafer J., Styer D. Optimum analog preprocessing for folding ADCs // IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. 1995. V. 42. P. 825‑829.
  223. Pace P., Styer D., Akin I. A folding ADC preprocessing architecture employing a robust symmetrical number system with Gray-code properties // IEEE Trans. Circuits. Syst. II. 2000. V. 47. P. 462–467.
  224. Pace P., Styer D., Ringer W. An optimum SNS-to-binary conversion algorithm and pipelined field-programmable logic design // IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II. 2000. V. 47. P. 736–745.
  225. Styer D., Pace P. Two-channel RSNS dynamic range // IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. 2002. V. 49. P. 395–397.
  226. Luke B., Pace P. N-Sequence RSNS ambiguity analysis // IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory. 2007. V. 53. P. 1759–1766.
  227. Luke B., Pace P. RSNS-to-binary conversion // IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. I. 2007. V. 54. P. 2030–2043.
  228. Arvizo M., Calusdian J., Hollinger K., Pace P. Robust symmetrical number system preprocessing for minimizing encoding errors in photonic analog-to-digital converters // Opt. Eng. 2011. V. 50. 084602.
  229. Chi H., Yao J. A photonic analog-to-digital conversion scheme using Mach-Zehnder modulators with identical half-wave voltages // Opt. Expr. 2008. V. 16. P. 567–572.
  230. Yang S., Shi Z., Chi H., Zhang X., Zheng S., Jin X., Yao J. Photonic analog-to-digital conversion using multiple comparators and Mach-Zehnder modulators with identical half-wave voltages // Opt. Commun. 2009. V. 282. P. 504–507.
  231. Yang S., Wang C., Chi H., Zhang X., Zheng S., Jin X., Yao J. Photonic analog-to-digital converter using Mach–Zehnder modulators having identical half-wave voltages with improved bit resolution // Appl. Opt. 2009. V. 48. P. 4458–4467.
  232. Stigwall J., Galt S. Interferometric analog-to-digital conversion scheme // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2005. V. 17. P. 468–470.
  233. Stigwall J., Galt S. Demonstration and analysis of a 40-Gigasample/s interferometric analog-to-digital converter // J. Lightw. Technol. 2006. V. 24. P. 1247–1256.
  234. Li W., Zhang H., Wu Q., Zhang Z., Yao M. All-Optical analog-to-digital conversion based on polarization differential interference and phase modulation // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2007. V. 19. P. 625–627.
  235. Zhang Y., Zhang H., Peng Y., Yao M. A photonic digital-to-analog conversion based on multi-wavelenght sampling // Proc. SPIE. 2008. V. 7136. 713630.
  236. Wu Q., Zhang H., Yao M. Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion using LiNbO3 Asymmetric Mach-Zehnder Interferometer // Proc. SPIE. 2008. V. 7136. 71363M.
  237. Wu Q., Zhang H., Yao M., Zhou W. All-Optical Analog-to-Digital Conversion Using Inherent Multiwavelength Phase Shift in LiNbO3 Phase Modulator // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2008. V. 20. P. 1036–1038.
  238. Zhang Z., Zhang H., Fu X., Yao M. A new approach for analog to digital conversion based on double parallel optical intensity modulator\" // Chin. J. Lasers. 2008. V. 35. P. 378–382.
  239. Wu Q., Zhang H., Fu X., Yao M. Spectral Encoded Photonic Analog-to-Digital Converter Based on Cascaded Unbalanced MZMs // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2009. V. 21. P. 224–226.
  240. Peng Y., Zhang H., Wu Q., Zhang Y., Fu X., Yao M. Experimental Demonstration of All-Optical Analog-to-Digital Conversion With Balanced Detection Threshold Scheme // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2009. V. 21. P. 1776–1778.
  241. Peng Y., Zhang H., Wu Q., Fu X., Yao M. Adaptive thresholding scheme in photonic analog-to-digital conversion // Opt. Lett. 2009. V. 34. P. 2201–2203.
  242. Wu Q., Zhang H., Peng Y., Fu X., Yao M. 40GS/s Optical analog-to-digital conversion system and its improvement // Opt. Expr. 2009. V. 17. P. 9252–9257.
  243. Fu X., Zhang H., Zhang Z., Yao M. Noninterferometric optical phase-shifter module in phase-shifted optical quantization // Opt. Eng. 2009. V. 48. 034301.
  244. Wang Y., Zhang H., Wu Q., Yao M. Improvement of Photonic ADC Based on Phase-Shifted Optical Quantization by Using Additional Modulators // IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 2012. V. 24. P. 566–568.
  245. Wang Y., Dou Y., Zhang H. Experimental demonstration of 5-bit phase-shifted all-optical analog-to-digital converter // Chin. Opt. Lett. 2013. V. 11. 042301.
  246. Wang Y., Zhang H., Dou Y. Proposal for an all optical analog-to-digital converter based on modal birefringence in a polarization maintaining fiber // Opt. Eng. 2013. V. 52. 025005.
  247. Wang Y., Zhang H., Dou Y., Yao M. Experimental evaluation of resolution enhancement of a phase-shifted all optical analog-to-digital converter using an electrical analog-to-digital converter array // Chin. Opt. Lett. 2013. V. 11, 082301
  248. Chi H., Li Z., Zhang X., Zheng S., Jin X., Yao J. Proposal for photonic quantization with differential encoding using a phase modulator and delay-line interferometers // Opt. Lett. 2011. V. 36. P. 1629–1631.
  249. Chen Y., Chi H., Zheng S., Zhang X., Jin X. Differentially Encoded Photonic Analog-to-Digital Conversion Based on Phase Modulation and Interferometric Demodulation // IEEE Photon. Techn. Lett. 2011. V. 23. P. 1890–1892.
  250. Wei S., Wu J., Zhao L., Yao C., Ji C., Lu D., Zhang X., Yin Z. Multimode interference coupler based photonic analog-to-digital conversion scheme // Opt. Lett. 2012. V. 37. P. 3699–3701.
  251. Jarrahi M., Miller D., Pease R., Lee T. Optical Spatially Quantized High Performance Analog-to-digital Conversion // CLEO 2007 Tech. Dig. 2007. CWJ7.
  252. Jarrahi M., Pease R., Miller D., Lee T. Optical Spatial Quantization for Higher Performance Analog-to-Digital Conversion // IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory and Tech. 2008. V. 56. P. 2143–2150.
  253. Jarrahi M., Pease R., Lee T. Spatial Quantized Analog-to-Digital Conversion Based on Optical Beam-Steering // J. Lightw. Technol. 2008. V. 26. P. 2219–2226.
  254. Johnstone A., Lewis M., Hares J., Kellett P. High-speed opto-electronic transient waveform digitiser // 3rd International Conf. on Advanced A/D and D/A Conversion Techniques and their Applications, Confs. publ. № 466. 1999. P. 21–24.
  255. Zmuda H., Hanna S. Optically assisted high-speed analog-to-digital conversion using a recirculating delay loop // Proc. SPIE. 2003. V. 5104. P. 66–75.
  256. Zmuda H., Hanna S. High-speed, high resolution optically assisted analog-to-digital conversion // Proc. SPIE. 2004. V. 5435. P. 153–163.
  257. Zmuda H., Hanna S., Bussjager R., Fanto M., Hayduk M., Johns S., Malowicki J., Repak P. Optically assisted high-speed, high resolution analog-to-digital conversion // Proc. SPIE. 2005. V. 5814. P. 51–61.
  258. Zmuda H., Fanto M., McEwen T., Pawloski J., Norelli K. A photonic recirculating delay line for analog-to-digital conversion and other applicatons // Proc. SPIE. 2008. V. 6975. 69750F.
  259. Llorente R., Morant M., Amiot N., Uguen B. Localisation of ultra-wide band radio signals by time-multiplexed photonic analog-to-digital processing // Proc. ECOC. 2010. P6.19.
  260. Llorente R., Morant M., Amiot N., Uguen B. Novel photonic analog-to-digital converter architecture for precise localization of ultra-wide band radio transmitters // IEEE J. Sel. Areas Comm. 2011. V. 29. P. 1321–1327.
  261. Babbitt W., Neifeld M., Merkel K. Broadband analog to digital conversion with spatialspectral holography // J. Lumin., 2007. V. 127. P. 152–157.
  262. Reibel1 R., Harrington C., Dahl J., Ostrander C., Roos P., Berg T., Mohan R., Neifeld M., Babbitt W. Demonstrations of analog-to-digital conversion using a frequency domain stretched processor // Opt. Expr. 2009. V. 17. P. 11281–11286.

© Издательство «РАДИОТЕХНИКА», 2004-2017            Тел.: (495) 625-9241                   Designed by [SWAP]Studio