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Mathematical simulation of the human brain radiation in microwave range

Keywords:

S.G. Vesnin – Ph.D.(Eng.), Gen. director, «RES Company», Moscow, Russia М.K. Sedankin – Ph.D. (Eng.), Senior Lecturer, Department of Biomedical Devices and Computer Technologies of the Moscow State University of Instrument Engineering and Informatic N.А. Pashkova – Student of 2-nd year master, Faculty of radio engineering and electronics, National Research University «Moscow Power Engineering Institute»


Today ischemic stroke of human brain is typical medical social problem. Microwave radiometry allows to noninvasively detect deeply located thermal abnormalities of bio-objects. It is necessary to estimate theoretically the possibility of thermal brain abnormalities detection, using antenna (32 mm) which was developed for breast disease diagnostics by RTM-01-RES radiometer in S frequency band. For solution of this problem we developed mathematical model of radiation of the human brain in microwave frequency range, based on numerical solution of Maxwell\'s equations in multilayer lossy media and numerical solution of bioheat transfer equation with blood flow. The model of bio-objects is consisted of the several layers: skin, adipose, bone, dura, cerebral-spinal fluid, gray and white matter. Investigated object was ischemic cerebral stroke. Each layer of the brain model is characterized by it\'s biophysical parameters: thermal conductivity, parameters of blood flow, metabolic heat production, permittivity and conductivity. The solution of the transfer equation was conducted using commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics. We obtained a simple approximation formula for temperature distribution for brain with ischemic stroke. We used commercial software CST Microwave Studio to calculate the electromagnetic field in brain with stroke. CST allows solving numerically the Maxwell\'s equations for multilayer structure with dissipation losses and real construction of antenna. The mathematical simulation results showed that microwave radiometry is able to detect thermal anomalies of the cerebral cortex of the brain in S frequency band. 73% of volume under investigation is located under the skull. The spatial resolution at the depth of 3 cm is equal to 25-30 mm. Measuring depth of thermal abnormalities is equal 20 mm, but due to heat transfer from the deeper layers microwave radiometer is able to detect thermal ab-normalities located much deeper. The mathematical simulation showed that if the size of the stroke is more than 35 mm microwave radiometry is able to record a significant temperature increase (≥0,4 °C). Usually the dimen-sions of the stroke, which is detected by the primary diagnostics more than 30-40 mm, and in many cases takes up to 1/3 of the volume of the brain. That’s why microwave RTM-01-RES radiometer can be used to detect heat abnormalities and non-invasive monitoring of brain the temperature during the treatment. Certainly that the question of the calculation of the temperature field in the brain with ischemic stroke requires additional experimental and theoretical studies.
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