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Neural-network methods of piecewise-regular object recognition

Keywords:

А. V. Savchenko – Ph.D. (Eng.), Associate Professor, National Research University Higher School of Economics (N. Novgorod); Doctoral-candidate, Nizhniy Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev. E-mail: avsavchenko@hse.ru
V. R. Milov – Dr.Sc. (Eng.), Professor, Head of Department «Electronics and Computer Networks», Nizhniy Novgorod State Technical University n.a. R.E. Alekseev. E-mail: vladimir.milov@gmail.com


One of the most significant tasks of pattern recognition is a classification problem. It is required to assign the query object to one of C classes given by the database (DB) which contains R ≥ C models. Depending of the analyzed object description, it is possible to extract 3 possible research directions: 1) conventional pointwise classification (the object is specified with the feature vector); 2) group-choice classification (the object is the group or sequence of feature vectors); and 3) classification of piecewise-regular objects (images, speech signals) which contain several independent homogeneous parts (segments). The decision is taken in favor of the best model in terms of the closeness for all its segments. Each segment is recognized with the pointwise or group classifier. The most well-studied tasks involve small number of classes and large model DB (C << R), e.g., optical character recognition, classification of traffic signs and phonemes. The review of the recent papers showed that the current trends in composite object recognition are connected with the refusal of feature extraction algorithms and application of classifiers with complex structure and primitive features (e.g., raw pixel matrix of image, spectrum of speech signal, etc.). The task becomes more complicated if only small number of models is available for each class. Practically all methods of piecewise-regular objects recognition are the nearest-neighbor methods. The special interest here is the probabilistic neural network with homogeneity testing in which the problem is reduced to a statistical testing of complex hypothesis with the decision based on the maximum likelihood method. Practical implementation of brute force nearest neighbor search in real-time applications is difficult for middle-sized DB (thousands of classes) and especially large DBs (tens and hundreds of thousands of classes). In the latter case the accuracy of modern classifiers is usually so low that they are integrated in automated decision-support system of content-based object retrieval. The algorithms return several potential candidates and the decision maker is responsible to choose the correct one. Unfortunately, most of known fast approximate nearest-neighbor methods, developed for very-large DBs, do not lead to a significant improvements of computing efficiency in comparison with brute-force strict nearest-neighbor search if the number C does not exceed thousands of classes. It is shown that in such case the directed enumeration method based on the asymptotic properties of the PNNH decision statistics can be applied to implement the real-time composite object recognition.
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