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Dietary choline has a positive effect on the state of cognitive functions with the injury of the brain

Keywords:

M. V. Guseva – Leading Engineer, Department of the Physiology of man and animals of the Biological faculty, Moscow State University n.a. M.V. Lomonosov. E-mail: gusvbr@mail.ru
A. A. Kamenskiy – Dr.Sc. (Biol.), Chief of the Department of the Physiology of man and animals of the Biological faculty, Moscow State University n.a. M.V. Lomonosov
T. K. Dubovaya – Dr.Sc. (Med.), Professor, the Department of histology, embryology and cytology, N.I. Pirogov Russian national research medical university (Moscow). E-mail: dubovaya@mail.ru


At present the completely substantiated idea was formed about the fact that the traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the developing traumatic disease are one of the leading reasons for invalidization and mortality of population [1]. In this case, important place in the treatment of this pathology and complex rehabilitation is assigned the drug therapy, directed with the use of contemporary neuroprotectors [2]. It is known that the greatest damage to the quality of the life of patients in the long-term post-traumatic period is connected with the disturbance of cognitive functions [3]. For preventive maintenance and treating the appearing disorders wide acceptance obtained the choline and cholinecontaining complex preparations [4]. In spite of a sufficient proof of positive effects of cholinecontaining preparations, it is considered that the mechanisms of the action of choline itself (in the form mono-diet) are studied insufficiently, and some, possibly, are still unknown. In the literature there is information about the fact that choline is the straight selective agonist of α7 of nicotine acetylcholine receptors (α7 of nAChR) and with TBI appears their scarcity [5]. Purposes of the present investigation: to estimate the influence of different doses of choline on the cognitive functions of the traumatized brain, and also on the dynamics of the density of α7 of nAChR in the specific regions of crust and on the degree of its morphological safety. Experiments were conducted on the male rats, that are located on the early stages of post-natal ontogenesis. Diagram of the simulation of the closed cerebral injury of the medium-weight degree: anaesthesia by izofluran 2% → kraneotomiya (sawing of opening in the bone of the skull in the form of disk) → the impact of crust by the special electronic  controlled rod (depth of the deformation of crust 1,5 mm) → the recovery of bone disk to the foothold. The following indices were studied: the state of cognitive function (evaluated on the formation three-dimensional memory with the use of an aqueous labyrinth of Morris); the density of α7 of nAChR with the use of a method of quantitative autoradiography; the volume of the safe part of the cerebral tissue [6]. The obtained results attest to the fact that the application of the precisely increased doses of choline during two weeks before and after of injury leads to the decrease of cognitive scarcity, to the growth of the density of α7 of nAChR and to an increase in the degree of the safety of crust in comparison with the traumatized animals, that did not obtain choline. Thus, the increased entering into the organism of choline with TBI renders the expressed neurotropic effect, improving cognitive functions, and also morphological and histochemical indices.
References:

  1. Gaydar B.V.Voennaya neyrokhirurgiya. SPb. 1998. 325 s.
  2. Putilina M.V., Radishevskiy I.A. Optimizatsiya programmy reabilitatsii patsientov s cherepno-mozgovymi travmami // Russkiy meditsinskiy zhurnal. 2005. S. 13-22.
  3. Starkstein S.E, Jorge R. Dementia after traumatic brain injury. Int Psychogeriatr. 2005. V. 17. Suppl 1. S93-107.
  4. Gliatilin. Sbornik klinicheskikh nablyudeniy (posobie dlya vrachey). M. 2002. 63 s.
  5. Verbois S.L., Scheff S.W., Pauly J.R. Chronic nicotine treatment attenuates alpha 7 nicotinic receptor deficits following traumatic brain injury // Neuropharmacology. 2003. V. 44. P. 224-233.
  6. Guseva M.V., Hopkins D.M., Pauly J.R. An autoradiographic analysis of rat brain nicotinic receptor plasticity following dietary choline modification // Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 2006. V. 84. P. 26-34.

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