A.E. Ananenkov – Ph.D. (Eng.), Senior Research Scientist, Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University)
М.V. Isakov – Ph.D. (Eng.), JSC «Salyut»
V.N. Skosyrev – Dr.Sc. (Eng.), Professor, Honored Scientist of RF, Senior Research Scientist, NII RET BMSTU
A.A. Smoyakov – Dr.Sc. (Eng.), Deputy General Director – General Constructor, JSC «Salyut»
V.A. Usachev – Ph.D. (Eng.), Associate Professor of «Radioelectronic systems and devices» chair of BMSTU, Deputy General Director, NII RET BMSTU
Specificity of the military ship as the fighting independent unit demands from the ship radar: the detection, the delivery of target instructions (TI), the target distribution and the control of defeat means on a wide class of the air and surface objects. Besides the ship radar should solve problems of navigation and safety of navigation also, and for some ships - the control of flights and landings of helicopters and pilotless flight vehicle (PLFV).
Radars, which the ships are equipped, should provide the decision of fighting problems on the various purposes in a wide range of heights and ranges. To solve fighting problems (including a self-defense problem) the ship radar system must combine functions of radar of distant and near boundaries of detection including high-rise and low-altitude objects (LAO). Now this problem is solving by some types of radars of a various frequency range working simultaneously. The using of several radars demands an occasional seat for placing and limits other arms of the ship because of considerable weight of equipment. In existing structure the radar information is arriving with various rate and accuracy from several radar unites in the fighting information-operating system (FIOS) that in addition brings errors and delays at decision-making. Besides, at existing radars, which are using narrow-band sounding signals, the information possibilities, in particular, in maintenance of recognition of the purposes and selection of stirring reflexions from a spreading surface, are limited.
The problem of detection of the low-altitude objects against the background of reflections from the surface in domestic and foreign practice decides today by specialized low-altitude radars in connection with absence of the technical decisions, allowing to obtain detection of the high-rise and low-altitude objects by one radar.
The most expedient decision of described above problems can be considered by association of functions of separate radar in uniform dual-range multipurpose radar (MPR) on the uniform rotary device (RD). The analysis of variants of radar realization on the basis of offered decisions shows that such radar can be created and weight and dimension characteristics of it will only slightly exceed indicators of one of replaced radars. Essentially new moments at creation offered MPR are use the solid-state digital active phase antenna array (APAA) and adaptive digital formation of broadband sounding signals of various types in a uniform cycle of the review. The given decision provides increase the velocity of the space review and reduction of time of a trajectories formation in 2-3 times.
It is known that expansion of a frequency band of generating, reception and signals processing raises the information possibilities of radio-electronic means. In radar is known the two branches of technologies of superbroadband signals (SBBS): the technology of signals with intra pulse modulation and the technology of supershort impulse radar (SSPR). These technologies require applying of the broadband equipment and, hence, the obtaining of high resolution on range of radar. Application of these technologies allows to use for detection and tracking of the objects the sounding signals (SS) with unequivocal range that allows to obtain the high rate of detection and tracking of the objects in all zone of radar responsibility.
Being based on achievements of modern element base and high technologies of radar it is possible to offer the following concept of the radar placed on a mast of the ship. The antenna system of offered MPR consists of two solid-state APAA with digital formation of beams.
Two-dimensional scanning of antenna in a vertical plane provides the survey zone of the top hemisphere, and additional scanning in a horizontal plane allows to form object lines "on pass" for one turn of antenna system.
The offered variant of the MPR realization allows to create on the basis of the same hardware modules a typical number (family) of multipurpose radars for the surface ships of the Navy of various type and displacement ton.
Radar-tracking channel of MPR on LAO in emergencies (a survivability mode) can provide along with the basic regime the decision of problems of the standard navigating radar of ship.
The offered variant of realization of MPR of the surface ships provides the decision of a wide range of the problems which can be realized by several radars of different function till now. This decision will essentially facilitate a problem of placing of antenna systems of radar and will remove an EMC problem. Installation of offered variant of radar on small courts is especially actual, as qualitatively improves level of their information support, allowing solving more difficult operative problems.