N.F. Morozov – Academician of RAS, Scientific Adviser of Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering of RAS. E-mail: MOROZOV@NM1016.spb.edu
D.A. Indejtsev – Corresponding Member of RAS, Director of Institute of Problems of Mechanical Engineering of RAS. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
A.E. Gorodetskij – D.Sc. (Eng.), Professor, Head of Laboratory of Methods and Systems of Automation, IPME RAS. E-mail: email@example.com
V.G. Kurbanov – Ph.D. (Phys.-Math.), Senior Research Scientist of Laboratory of Methods and Systems of Automation, IPME RAS. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
V.A. Agapov – Junior Research Scientist of Laboratory of Methods and Systems of Automation, IPME RAS. E-mail: Agapov1989@mail.ru
Unlike passive astronomical observations, when analyzed own or scattered radiation, radar information for comparison obtained by the probing signal, the parameters of which are known, echo.
We consider the problem of determining the speed and distance of space objects, their size, the elements of the rotation properties of the surface radar methods using large radio telescopes of the millimeter range, for example, is being built in Suffa RT -70. In particular, when used as Eupatorium as a klystron transmitter KU342 , the geostationary orbit (L ≈ 3,6•107 m) can detect objects radius of at least 8 cm 's radius R = 100 m can be detected at a distance of almost 3 times farther than from the earth to the moon, and at R = 10 m – almost double the distance to the moon. At speeds approaching the object to the Earth v = 30 km/s to be found for T = 5,5 hours before the collision with the Earth. In order to provide the required high-precision ground-based and space-based astrophysical research using these telescopes is required to solve the problem of accurate guidance and further tracking. When using large-diameter telescopes is implemented unprecedented accuracy. For example, when the asteroid radar measurement error of the delay is a few nanoseconds, and the Doppler shift – hundredths of a hertz . One of the world's largest radio telescope is a P-2500 (RT-70), with a mirror diameter of 70 meters. It is unique in that in addition to customary astronomy tasks associated with passive observation of celestial bodies own radiation, the complex includes a high-powered transmitters that allow active space experiments associated with the radiation direction of the objects to strong electromagnetic fluxes followed by analysis of the received signals.
These problems in the transition to millimeter range can be addressed and resolved at the RT-70 through the creation of fundamentally new methods for the synthesis of specular surfaces by means of intelligent control systems elements mirror systems with adaptive antennas controlled surfaces of the primary mirror and subdish and actuators parallel type which is necessary to use new parallel control algorithms, and moreover, by the use of adaptive matrix of radiation detectors. The calculations show the feasibility of using large radio telescopes for millimeter-wave detection of small spacecraft. It is necessary to use the proposed new management methods mirrored surfaces antenna to ensure the migration of reflective surfaces antenna to a new agreed position on the wavelength of the radiation received in order to eliminate or reduce phase distortion, resulting in a significant decrease in the utilization rate of the surface.
Kislyakov A.G. Radioastronomicheskie issledovaniya v millimetrovom i
submillimetrovom diapazonakh voln // Uspekhi fizicheskikh nauk. 1970. T. 101.
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Kurbanov V.G. Problemy i metody obnaruzhe-niya udalennykh kosmicheskikh
istochnikov radioizlucheniya radioteleskopami millimetrovogo diapazona //
Materialy vtoroj Vserossijskoj konferencii «Radioelektronnye sredstva peredachi
i priema signalov i vizualizaciya informacii» (Taganrog. 27–28 iyunya 2012 g.).
Skolnik M. Spravochnik po radiolokacii. M.: Media. 2012.