In the field of small ranges whole classes of radars are working: the protection radars, radars of the airfield review, the navigating stations of ship and the appeared last years the radar sensors of safety for cars. At an estimation of range and probability of object detection traditionally dependences constructed from the relation a signal/noise (S/N) are used. However in rather typical situation - detection of the ground objects and the objects on small ranges such approach is wrongful. In this case not only the noise, but a component of the reflected signal from an extended surface and hydro and meteorological formations are necessary to take into account also.
In article is shown, that constant radiated power, characteristic for traditional radars of small range and sufficient for the decision of a target problem in the worst weather conditions and on limiting ranges, frequently is superfluous for the radars of small range. Thus, for numerous radars of the small and supersmall range, carrying out the detection of objects against reflections from an extended surface, there is an actual possibility of optimization (decrease) in radiated power. For specified types of radars the problem of decrease in an ecological load around station action (decrease in an irradiation of passengers, attendants of the airports, sea and river ports, inhabitants of adjoining areas) is especially important. Today some methods of decrease in redundancy of radiated power which is impossible to consider sufficient are developed and are used.
The concept of management of radiated microwave energy of radars, as the means of decrease in operational expenses of radars and maintenance of ecological safety and EMC in areas of action of radars is entered. The simple criterion of sufficiency of the radiated power, accessible to direct measurement by radars equipment in real time is offered.
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