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Stem cells for correction of neurodegenerative disorders

Keywords:

E.V. Loseva


The use in the clinic fragments of fetal tissue in neurotransplantology of the end of the ХХ century was associated with many of the ethical and technical problems. In this review presents the experimental work of the past decade, in which for the correction of neurodegenerative disorders use the transplantation of cultured stem cells of different origin, which allows to significantly reduce the number of primary donor material. Transplantation of cultured neural stem cells (NSC), derived from embryonic and pluripotent stem cells, is dangerous because of the possibility of tumors formation in the brain of the recipient. The neurotransplantation of the NSC cultures, derived from embryonic bookmarks nervous system, gives the best therapeutic results. The search for the tissue sources of stem cells with neurogenic potential in an adult organism is in progress that more reduced the ethical problem. Use of induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC) from somatic cells completely solves the ethical problems in neurotransplantation, but does not exempt from the problems of the tumors formation. The most progressive technology to date is a direct reprogramming of somatic cells into pluripotent neural stem/progenitor cells, giving rise to neurons and glial elements, or neurons of narrow specialization, in particular, dopaminergic. We analyzed the experience of the different genesis stem cells application in the clinic for the treatment of the CNS diseases.
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