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The Korsakov Protoneurocomputer


A.Yu. Аlekseev

This paper studies the project of intelligent machines, proposed in 1832 by Russian engineer Semyon Nikolayevich Korsakov (1787-1853) in his article "Essay on a new method of research by machines of comparing ideas", published in French and translated into Russian for the first time after 175 years. It is proved that the machine Korsakov - the first in the history of the project "neurocomputer". Highlights the world championship S.N. Korsakov in artificial intelligence, programming, organizing storage on punched cards, in the formation of connectionist paradigm of thinking. Cognitivist conception S.N. Korsakov following: 1) anti-representation rejection of the model of thinking as logical-linguistic calculus, 2) anti-essentialist focus on multidimensional comparison relation between signs of ideas, and carried out, if possible, by means of mechanical manipulation, and 3) strengthening of the human mind, but not his computer simulation, 4 ) invariance of design decisions on the subject’s area (his machines has been successfully applied in demography and homeopathy), 5) economic efficiency and ease of use, assumed personal home computing. There are two alternative interpretations of the machine Korsakov: representative interpretation specifying the set-theoretic form of work (A. Mikhailov, 2008) and connectionist interpretation, identical Korsakov's idea of thinking as a mechanism for connection and comparing the sings of ideas (A. Alekseev, 2010). The second interpretation confirmed the obvious analogy with the concept of a neural network. The structure of the machine include: "neurons" - punch cards ("simple ideas"), composite punch card ("complex idea") with distinguished for her input, output and latent "nodes". The «synaptic connection» between "neurons" formed by hitting the tabulator needles in the holes of punch cards which vary due to different amounts of the holes punched cards, the tabulator needles and effort spent for work the tabulator and perforator. Since all modern media is essentially the implementation of the electronic Korsakov’s punch cards, the Korsakov Machine - is not only not a historical fact, but the current principal project of neurocomputing on the basis of modern microelectronics. To substantiate the neurocomputer’s interpretation studied mechanisms of the machine Korsakov: 1) The Simple Comparator that provides a parallel comparison of signs in the format at least four-digit logic. 2) The Tablet Gomeoskop performing complex expertise and diagnostics by overlay the benchmark punch card and desired punch card. Instantly the result obtained is characterized, in general, infinite-valued logic, indexing propositional attitudes of actors and their aesthetic preferences to create perforated "paintings." The Korsakov Machine is to formalize quasi-algorithm work of the artist, by analogy with the Turing machine as a formalization of the algorithm of the mathematician. 3) The Line Gomeoskop with no moving parts – the dynamics of the complex ideas explication by the movement of a custom tab on the benchmark punch card. This mechanisms is a conceptual prototype of the modern project of dynamic systems. 4) The Line Gomeoskop with moving parts demonstrates "painted" the logic-linguistic dynamics of complex idea, as the needles are attached linguistically expressed signs; 5) The Ideoskop as a prototype hybrid, neuro-linguistic-computer machine. Provides a logical-linguistic animation complex ideas through holistic coverage its comparable and incomparable, compatible and incompatible, major, minor and less minor signs. This signs are expressed in the continuous, interval and the n-arity formats. The Korsakov Machine expressible in pure connectionist paradigm and for principles of neurocomputing it plays a role similar to Babbage-Turing-Neumann Machine for principles of classic representative computing.

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