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The results of polarization and angular measurements of bare soil radar cross section and brightness temperature changes at 5.6 GHz

Keywords:

A.K. Arakelyan, A.A. Arakelyan, A.K. Hambaryan, M.R. Manukyan


Microwave methods of remote sensing (radar and radiometric) have wide application for soil, snow and ocean surface mapping and parameters retrieval, and both theoretical and experimental investigations of soil, snow and ocean surface microwave reflective, back scattering and emissive characteristics related to surface parameters assessment and to surface signatures and subsurface target detection and classification are in progress at various institutions and space agencies. Determining ocean surface temperature and salinity, ocean surface wave and near surface wind fields parameters, the water content in soil and snow is essential to many applications in, hydrology, meteorology and climatology, in agriculture and environmental security and preservation, in civil engineering, and building, and in other fields of human activities. Regarding the land, direct observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state from space will allow significantly improved estimates of water, energy and carbon transfers between the land and the atmosphere. The accuracy of numerical models of the atmosphere used in weather prediction and climate projections are critically dependent on the correct characterization of these transfers. Soil moisture measurements are also directly applicable to flood assessment and drought monitoring. Observations of soil moisture and freeze/thaw timing will also reduce a major uncertainty in quantifying the global carbon sink on land over the boreal latitudes. For precise and unambiguous solution of bare and vegetated soils microwave remote sensing inverse problems it is necessary to improve radiative transfer models for soil and vegetation. For this purpose it is necessary and very significant to develop and to manufacture multi-frequency and multi-polarization complex of combined radar-radiometers at L–Ka-band of frequencies, suitable for short range remote sensing application and to perform field or quasi-field measurements under controlled conditions. In this paper data of preliminary, spatio-temporally collocated, microwave active-passive, polarization measurements of bare soil radar and radio thermal characteristics angular dependences at 5.6GHz are presented. The results have been obtained during measurements carried out in quasi-field conditions in the experimental site of ECOSERV Remote Observation Centre Co. Ltd. (ECOSERV ROC) built in Armenia under frameworks of ISTC Projects A-872 and A-1524. The measurements were carried out at various polarizations by C-band (5.6 GHz) combined scatterometric-radiometric system developed and built by ECOSERV ROC under the frameworks of the abovementioned Projects. Structural and operational features of the utilized system and the whole measuring complex are considered too. The curves of bare soil (smooth and dug) radar cross sections and brightness (antenna) temperatures angular dependences simultaneously mesured at 5.6 GHz for various values of soil moisture, soil and air temperatures and weather conditions are presented. The curves are built for various polarizations of radar («vv», «vh», «hh», and «hv») and radiometric («v» and «h») sensing.
References:

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