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Refractive Properties of the Gravitational Sphere of the Earth in the Rotating Coordinate Systems

Keywords:

V.F. Fateev


The development of satellite navigation, increase stability of airborne and ground frequency and time standards (achieved 10–15–10–16, in a state of discussion 10–17–10–18), the growth of instrumental precision frequency standard equipment comparisons (up to 10–14) and tools delay measurements of radio signals in space radio links (units – tens of picoseconds) requires further development of the propagation theory in the near-Earth space. Radio waves in the Earth-space radio links navigation and timing is distributed in the gravitational field of the Earth, Moon and Sun, the Earth\'s atmosphere, as well as in the gravitational fields of the inertial forces that arise in the widely used rotating frames of reference: the Greenwich associated with the rotating Earth, the orbital associated with space vehicles, etc. On the basis of electrodynamics of noninertial media determination of the Earth gravitational field is developed. Based on the tensor form of Maxwell\'s equations and material relations for arbitrary gravitational fields with a moving atmosphere a generalized wave equation and the dispersion relation are obtained. Their solution gives an effective refractive index of the Earth gravitational sphere of rotating reference frames. For Greenwich frame rate this index takes into account normal refractive properties of the atmosphere, Earth\'s gravitational field, and the gravitational field of the inertial forces induced by the rotation of the Earth. In particular cases, the resulting generalized refractive index is reduced to the known expressions for the usual atmosphere and gravitational field. The estimates of gravity and gyroscopic addition to the refractive index of the atmosphere for the Greenwich and other geocentric rotating systems are presented. These additives are commensurate with the characteristics of the ionosphere. An important consequence of using the concept of refractive Earth gravitational sphere is that at calculation of the radio waves parameters (propagation time, frequency, phase, etc.)for taking into account relativistic and gravitational effects it is not necessary to use the methods of the general theory of relativity. So, using the obtained indexes it is possible to do it with the classical methods of the theory of wave propagation.
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