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Ship monitoring from space: space segment of AIS. Results and development prospects


А.А. Romanov, А.А. Romanov, А.А. Kuznetsov

In this article the results of more than 30 missions for ships detection by the signal of automatic identification system (AIS) on board the spacecraft (SC) are analyzed. A comparison of various space programs on number of detected vessels, number of decoded AIS messages on average per turn and per second has been done. The effect of different signal processing schemes (coherent, non-coherent), different antenna types (monopole, phased array antenna, helix, quadrifilar helix), a constellation of satellites and other factors on the number of decoded AIS messages and detected vessels has been analyzed. The technical characteristics of developing space segment of the AIS (S-AIS) are presented, and the analysis of correspondence between the modern space-based AIS receivers and necessary technical requirements has been done. According to the results of the comparative analysis, the best indicator of the number of decoded AIS messages and the number of detected vessels in turn belongs to SC ExactView-1 of company ExactView: 1.5 million, 45 thousand, respectively, which is 1.5 times higher than the results of other space-based receivers. AIS receivers installed on the spacecraft of ExactView distinguish himself from the receivers of other companies: on board the spacecraft is only digitizing and recording original signal AIS and then it relayed to Earth. AIS messages are decoded already on the Earth with the help of specially developed algorithms. ExactView space segment together with the ground-based network of base stations can detect 85 thousand ships daily, which is 90–95% of the total number of vessels with AIS transponder. The paper provides an overview and analysis of current research papers on the topic of increasing the probability of detection of terrestrial AIS from space. The paper discusses the development trends of this technology in the near future.
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June 24, 2020
May 29, 2020

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