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Abnormalities of hemostasis and vte in cancer patients

Keywords:

O.V. Somonova, A.V. Madzhuga, A.L. Elizarova


Cancer tumor elevates risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) and pulmonary embolism in 4-7 time. The main role in pathogenesis of thrombotic complication in cancer patients is changes in the hemostatic sistem caused by the tumor itself as well as methods of treatment. The use of LMWH before and after operation (7-20 days) reduces the activation of pro-coagulation (prolongation of APTT, decrease in prothrombin activity and of fibrinogen concentration) and platelet links of hemostasis system, the level of intravascular coagulation markers (D-dimers, fibrin monomers soluble complex) and von Willebrand factor. The LMWH conduces preservation of natural inhibitor of thrombin (antithrombin III, protein C), maintains the defensive role of fibrinolysis. In patients with tumors of the musculoskeletal system VTE developed in 13% of cases in control group versus 2% of cases in group, receiving enoxaparin sodium thromboprophylaxis. In gynecological cancer patients VTE developed in 13% of cases in control group versus 6% of cases in group, receiving nadroparin thromboprophylaxis, and 5% of cases in group, receiving enoxaparin sodium thromboprophylaxis. In patients with cancer receiving antitumor therapy, increased the intensity of intravascular coagulation: Use of LMWH together with antitumor therapy decreased the intensity of intravascular coagulation and the rate of thrombotic events; thrombosis developed in 21% in the control group versus 4% in patients receiving LMWH.
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