V.P. Aleshin, D.D. Novgorodtsev, G.V. Simonov
The following paper discusses the capabilities of the Altai Optical Laser Center in terms of spacecraft current state monitoring. First of all it considers the capabilities of the center to monitor spacecraft emergencies. The analysis of the accidents involving space objects terminated transmission of telemetry is of great difficulty. In this case, the only possible sources of information are ground-based observation facilities. A slow motion of a spacecraft relative to center of mass and estimation of its current orientation and deployment of elements is a sophisticated case of great importance. The most effective in this case are optical observations using the adaptive optical system. Conventional methods of computer vision, usually used to solve the same problems, require a high quality of input images (photographic) and can be applied at distances of no more than several dozens of kilometers. Due to recent developments effective interactive algorithms based on the use of trans-atmospheric images prognosis («behind atmosphere») and its comparison with real images (from observations) have been created, which significantly reduce ill-posedness of a corresponding inverse problem. Using the adaptive optical imaging together with trans-atmospheric spacecraft images prognosis allow to carry out an analysis of emergencies with spacecrafts «Phobos-Grunt» and «GEO-IK 2».