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Methods of radiation pattern shaping for planar antenna arrays


B.D. Manuilov

The some theoretical results of the author in the area of antenna array synthesis are developed and generalized, which deal with radiation pattern shaping and the extremum search of the energy functionals. It is shown that the partial radiation patterns method based on Kotelnikov functions is most efficient for the amplitude and phase control of radiation pattern of multi-element planar antenna arrays with rectangular aperture. The proposed method provides the ability of direct ana-lytical calculation of the array element complex currents in accordance with the given radiation pattern. This method has the high potential to shape the single-beam as well as the multiple-beam radiation pattern with low side-lobe level, desired amplitudes, phases and polarizations of beams. Moreover, the synthesis of any sector-type patterns, cosecant-type patterns and countered beam patterns is possible as well as null-forming in the noise directions. The synthesis techniques above are appropriate for the arrays with the complicated form of aperture. In this case they are implemented by means of energy functional maximization. However, the efficiency of the synthesis methods suffers from the mobile noise environment. In this paper three ways are considered to improve the efficiency of the suggested matrix synthesis methods in the mobile noise environment. The numerical analysis shows that the partial fan pattern method (proposed in Tikhomirov Institute) is efficient in the case phase-only control of planar arrays with any aperture configuration. Two methods are used for the null-forming in the radiation pattern of planar arrays in the case of phase control. These methods are based on the minimization of the error functional. In both methods the error functional order may be greatly reduced, so the efficiency of the methods improves dramatically. The numerical example for array of 1296 elements is considered (36×36 elements). The array is subdivided into 36 (6×6) subarrays and the order of error functional is reduced to 18.

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